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No. ofInvestments16ActivityCreating safespaces for girlsEvidenceBaseCategoryPromising*NotesParticipation in girls’ clubs has been found effective inproviding opportunity to reflect on gender relations,build confidence, and increase agency (e.g., delaymarriage, pursue self-employment). 96 More evidenceis needed to assess clubs’ impact on educationaloutcomes, though a program in Egypt demonstratedsignificant literacy gains among participants. 97Raising awareness of economic returns from continuedschooling is particularly important for keeping girls inschool. However, awareness alone is insufficient, actualaccess to higher-level schooling and the labor marketalso play an important roles in motivation to pursueschooling. 98Teacher attitudes towards girls and gender equity in theclassroom have been shown to play important roles ingirls’ retention. 99Learning outside the classroom occurs throughactivities such as tutoring and mentoring. Whencombined with interventions such as health care andfinancial support, tutoring can help increase girls’retention in primary and secondary school, as well asimprove employment prospects. 100Evidence is limited, but one study found that science,mathematics, and technology camps contributed tomore girls registering for these subjects at the uppersecondary levels. 101 A study of a USAID/ALEF 21stcenturyskills program in Morocco found rapid positiveoutcomes in school retention and learning. 102Little evidence exists to suggest that providingmenstrual supplies has a direct impact on attendance;a rigorous study showed no significant impact on girls’attendance, 103 though evidence exists that managementof menstrual hygiene contributes to girls’ absenteeism. 104There is sometimes a trade-off between increasedenrollment and quality if not accompanied by increasesin support for schools. 10516Raising awarenessabout educationand lifetrajectoriesStrong*16Challenging socialnorms that detereducationStrong*15Academic supportand mentoring andtutoring to includegirlsStrong*1521st-century skills(problem solving,information andcommunicationtechnology)Promising*14Sanitation and/orhygiene suppliesNeeds moreevidence*14Getting girls inschool campaignsNeeds moreevidence*Note: Each classification marked with an asterisk draws on and matches the rating given by the DFID paper. Classifications notmarked with an asterisk were developed using a supplementary review of evidence, giving preference to peer-reviewed, publishedstudies.Source: Activity rankings noted with an asterisk draw on the findings of Elaine Unterhalter et al., GirlsEducation and GenderEquality (London: U.K. Department for International Development, 2014).28 GLOBAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

accompanied by increases in support for schools. Forexample, when Malawi eliminated school fees to encourageenrollment, particularly for girls, there were indeeddramatic increases in enrollment, but at the expense ofeducation quality. Without sufficient support for schoolsin terms of staffing, classrooms, and training, schoolsbecame overwhelmed—learning outcomes sufferedand dropouts persisted. 108 Evidence shows that raisingawareness about the economic returns to schooling isimportant for girls’ participation, and this message maysupport campaigns that aim for enrollment.5. Balancing Scarce Resources with aDrive for ResultsFinding 5.1: Survey respondents reported a rangeof challenges to their work on girls’ education,including funding design and implementationchallenges.The survey asked respondents to prioritize the challengesthat they face in each of three categories:funding, design and implementation. Twenty-five institutionsresponded to this question.Respondents were slightly more likely to prioritizethe challenges of obtaining funding from externalpartners, host country commitment and addressinghuman resource constraints. Figure 19 gives the datafor what institutions rank as their most significant andsecond-most-significant challenges.8Figure 19. Main Barriers to Funding GirlsEducation(Reported by Survey Respondents)76543210Matched funding fromexternal partnersFunding withininstitutionMatched fundingfrom host countryEvidence baseMonitoring &evaluationModels for scalePartners/networksin countryHuman resourcesHost countrycommitmentSocial and culturalOtherFUNDING CHALLENGES DESIGN CHALLENGES IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGESINNOVATION AND ACTION IN FUNDING GIRLS’ EDUCATION 29

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