Michigan's Public EMPloyEE RElations act - Mackinac Center
Mackinac Center for Public Policy 10“… PERA is the predominant state statute governing publicemployee relations in Michigan. When a conflict has arisen betweenanother state statute, charter provision, or local ordinance, and aprovision of a contract negotiated under PERA, in virtually everyinstance the contract provision has been held to prevail.One result of the dominance of PERA, as Attorney General opinionshave noted, is that ‘public employers and their affected employees[have] the right to, in effect, negotiate a statute out of existence as to thecontracting parties through collective bargaining.’ [Citation omitted.]This raises serious concerns because the provisions ‘bargained out ofexistence’ by the parties may contain safeguards which were enacted atthe state or local level to limit the scope and size of government.” 7Among the statutes that have been effectively trumped by collective bargainingunder PERA are:• The County Civil Service Act, which prior to the enactment of PERAestablished local civil service commissions. These commissions set wages andwork classifications for local government employees and were intended toensure that hiring and promotions would be determined by skill, rather thanpartisan pressures. 8• The Municipal Employees Retirement System established under state law. 9• Local government charters. The state constitution gives counties, cities andvillages the authority to draft and amend their own charters, subject to thelimits of the state constitution and general state laws. Under this principle ofhome rule, citizens would be free to shape their own local governments andrestrict their actions as they see fit. PERA, however, has been interpreted sothat collective bargaining agreements trump the provisions of local ordinancesand charters. 10 In this regard PERA arguably has subverted the state constitution. *As a consequence of PERA’s undermining of home rule, local ordinancesestablishing disciplinary standards, residency requirements and staffing standardshave been rendered ineffective. Courts have also applied PERA’s standards to publicschool employees, effectively trumping the provisions of education statutes. 11* Michigan municipal law is a complicated area beyond the scope of this study, but the obligation to bargainundeniably places restrictions on local governments, and it does so in a manner not addressed by the MichiganConstitution. The Legislature has considerable authority to shape local government operations, including the provisionsof local government charters, but it is not clear that it should be able to delegate that authority to private bodies, suchas unions, or that it intended to do so when PERA was enacted. It is the opinion of this author that such a delegationhas in fact happened, and that at a minimum this issue is ripe for reconsideration by the state courts.
Michigan's Public Employee Relations Act 11In a democratic government, the power to annul legislation must be reserved forthe people, their elected officials or, in cases where either exceeds their authority,the courts. When legislative authority is exercised by private entities, such asgovernment employee unions, the inevitable result is to undermine democraticself-government. This situation is dangerous enough when the union focuses ontraditional collective bargaining issues, such as wages, benefits, hours and basicworking conditions. But government employee unions are developing a distinctpublic policy agenda that ranges well beyond ordinary workplace issues, andPERA has given them their own unique and powerful tools with which to advancethat agenda, to the detriment of the residents of Michigan.In theory, the duty to bargain is limited to wages, hours and other terms orconditions of employment, but that “other” category remains broad and poorlydefined. In practice, any political issue that can be expressed in terms of employeecompensation, job duties or work standards and included in a collective bargainingagreement is vulnerable to manipulation by government union negotiators. Sincethe work of government employees consists of enforcing laws and implementingthe decisions of government officials, the range in which union officials can usePERA to usurp authority that the state and federal constitutions leave to thepeople and their elected officials is disturbingly broad.The Consequences of GovernmentUnion IdeologyThe labor movement in Michigan is undeniably changing. As the UAW, long thestate’s most powerful private-sector union, loses members due to the restructuringof Chrysler and General Motors, government employees make up a larger andlarger part of union membership, a trend that reflects developments throughoutthe United States and globally.In 1983, more than 326,000 government employees were covered by collectivebargaining agreements, but more than twice as many private-sector workers,758,000, were covered by such arrangements. In 2008, public-sector unions hadlost 13,000 workers, taking the number of government employees covered byunion contracts in Michigan down to 313,000. Private-sector unions, however,showed a more dramatic decrease of 270,000, leaving 489,000 workers coveredby union contracts. 12 As a consequence, while government employees made upbarely 30 percent of Michigan’s unionized work force in 1983, their portion ofthe unionized work force was up to 39 percent in 2008. As the restructuring of