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Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning ...

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning ...

5.0 Developing

5.0 Developing Adaptation MeasuresFigure 62. Rhizophora stylosa seedlings planted on sandbanks offshore of Lomawai, Fiji.5.1.4.5 Wild seedling collection and transplantingPhoto: Joanna EllisonSeedlings chosen for transplant should be 0.5 to 0.6m tall, with a straight trunk, an intact growing tipand several leaf pairs. Old seedlings with more than15 leaf scars on the trunk and those that already havedeveloped prop roots or side branches should notbe selected. Older seedlings are less likely to survivetransplanting, probably due to root disturbance(Hamilton & Snedaker, 1984).Seedling collection is best done at low tide and mustinclude collection of an intact plug of mud around theroots of about 30 cm depth and 15 cm diameter. Thiscan be done using a shovel and a volunteer’s hands insoft mud, transferring the seedling’s root mass andsoil to a surrounding bag or sacking to protect the rootmass during transport. If the sediment is sandy, it isless cohesive and thus difficult to retain around theroots, while silt or mud is more cohesive and easier tokeep as a protective root plug.As an alternative to propagule planting (Figure 52),existing seedlings can be dug out from areas wherethey are too dense and relocated to rehabilitationareas. The advantages of this method are thatseedlings can be collected at any time of the year, andsuccess rates are usually higher than with plantingseeds. The disadvantages are that sources must beselected with care, and seedlings are more difficult totransport.Mangrove seedlings for replanting can be collectedfrom large, mature mangrove ecosystems wherenatural regeneration is occurring and which havea score of 1 in the Recruitment section of thevulnerability assessment (subsection 3.2.1). It is bestto choose young seedlings because these have growthreserves remaining in the hypocotyl that will helptheir establishment after relocation. Youth is shownby there being few leaf scars on the stem below thelowest leaves (Duke & Pinzón, 1992). Seedlings shouldnot be removed when they have a chance of reachingmaturity where they are, and low-resilience areas, suchas the seaward edge or creek edges, should be avoided.The best areas are where there are an abundanceof seedlings under the shade of mature trees, withcompetition from other seedlings (Figure 63).Figure 63. Rhizophora stylosa seedlings in Fiji suitablefor transplant because they are too dense, under shadeand also young. Youth is shown by there being no orvery few leaf scar rings under the lowest leaf pair.Photo: Brigid MorrisonClimate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning for Mangrove Systems | 97

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