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Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning ...

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning ...

8.0 GlossaryLiDAR Light

8.0 GlossaryLiDAR Light Detection and Ranging. This airborneoptical spatial technology sends multiple, rapidwavelengths of light to a target surface, whichsubsequently “bounce” back to the device therebyrecording the surface elevation.Marine protected area Marine areas that have beenconserved for their natural environment values bysome level of restriction of human activities and thatcan fall under the jurisdiction of various levels ofauthority.Mean sea level The average of tidal water level heightsdetermined from a long record and calculated fromtide gauge records.Macrotidal A tidal range of over four meters.Microtidal A tidal range of less than two meters.Near–shore An area that lies within the shoreline andthe breaker zone.Offshore An area beyond the breaker zone andextending out to the continental shelf.Phenology The seasonal timing of fruiting andflowering, which is influenced by climate and is ofsignificance for pollination.Plumule The first shoot spikes at the top of thehypocotyl.Pneumatophores The snorkel-like aerial roots ofmangrove genera such as Sonneratia and Avicennia.They come vertically out of the ground from horizontalbelow-ground roots.Pollen analysis The identification and relativeabundance of pollen fossils preserved in thesedimentary record, used for reconstructing pastenvironments such as mean sea level.Primary production Plant biological productivityfrom photosynthesis, to produce organic material orbiomass. The basis of ecosystem food webs.Propagule Any part of a plant, such as a seed,hypocotyl, leaf or branch, that can be detached andgrow into a new individual.Proxy sea level history A sea level history indicatingthe timing and magnitude of past sea level change,usually documented from the calibration of modernecological indicators of mean sea level with fossilevidence of these.Recruitment Successful seedling growth thatcontributes quantitatively to a species population.Refuge A location that provides suitable habitat wheremangroves may be able to accommodate or adapt toclimate change impacts.Relative abundance The relative amount oforganisms (usually a species) in a community,compared to others present.Relative sea level change The sum of local, regionaland global components of sea level change actingat a particular site. These components may includesubsidence due to sediment compaction, regional upliftor tectonics or global sea level rise owing to ice melt orocean thermal expansion.Replicates A repeated set of scientific observations ofone or more variables, often using sampling units suchas quadrats or plots.Resilience The ability of a system to absorb andrecover from impacts or disturbance.Resistance The ability of a system to withstandchange and continue to function.River discharge Water that flows from a river to theocean such as into an estuary or delta.Riverine An environment dominated by freshwaterriver hydrology and geomorphology.Rolling easements A broad collection of approachesdesigned to restrict protective barriers to sea level riseand allow migration of coastal wetlands and shorelinesor human access to them.Runoff water Water derived mainly from rainfall thatflows over the land surface due to gravity.Seaward edge The farthest point in a seawarddirection at which vegetation can establish and thrive.Sediment budget The net balance of gains and lossesof sediment from a landform such as a coastline. It isfundamental to whether the associated landform isbuilding and accreting, eroding and retreating or indynamic equilibrium.116 | Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning for Mangrove Systems

8.0 GlossarySedimentation The accumulation of inorganicparticles after settlement down from the water above.Sedimentation rates The rate of vertical sedimentaccumulation, usually measured in mm per year.Sensitivity The innate characteristics of a species orsystem that influence its tolerance to changes in thebiotic or abiotic environment.Species zone An area that can be visuallydistinguished by the prevalence of a dominant species,or combination of species that co-dominate.Viviparous In mangroves, the state of the hypocotylalready being germinated before leaving the parenttree, as opposed to the seed being the dispersal unit asin most other higher plants.Waypoint A location that is recorded and stored in aGPS device to establish its coordinates and that can bedownloaded into a GIS for mapping.Zone transition An area that contains a mixtureof species from adjacent zones where neither isdominant.Stakeholders Individuals, groups, communities,organizations or government agencies that have aninterest in a given natural resource.Stratigraphy The study of sequences of rock orsediment from which past environments of depositioncan be inferred and dated.Subsidence Fall in elevation of the Earth’s crust thatcan result from tectonic movement, adjustment tochanges in ice or water loading, or sediment loadingand compaction.Surge A temporary rise in relative sea level causedby ocean water being pushed up to the shoreline bywind or wave energy and usually associated with stormand/or flood events.Survivorship The number of individuals thatsurvive until maturity, usually expressed as a relativepercentage.Tidal range The vertical difference between highesthigh tide and lowest low tide.Transect A designated line or belt that is deployedthrough an area to be sampled, the dimensions ofwhich are dependent on the needs of a study.Turbidity Turbid water is that in which sediment issuspended in the water column. High turbidity willmake water appear murky and can seriously affectwater quality, such as reducing sunlight penetration tocoral or sea grass.Vegetative production Amount of live mangroveforest material generated from photosynthesis,measured in grams per square meter.Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning for Mangrove Systems | 117

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