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Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning ...

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning ...

© naturepl.com/Tim

© naturepl.com/Tim Laman/WWF

ContentsExecutive Summary1.0 Mangroves: Values, Status and Threats 11.1 Mangrove values...................................................11.2 Present status and threats...................................31.3 Climate change effects on mangroves................32.0 Planning a Vulnerability Assessment 72.1 Background...........................................................72.2 Pilot sites...............................................................82.3 Objectives of the vulnerability assessment .....102.4 Overarching principles for any VA.....................102.5 Community and stakeholder involvement......... 113.0 Conducting a Vulnerability Assessment 123.1 Initial desktop review of existing information......133.2 Forest assessment of mangroves.......................143.2.1 Rapid assessment ....................................153.2.2 Permanent plots........................................223.2.3 Litter productivity analysis.........................273.3 Recent spatial changes of mangroves..............303.4 Ground surface elevations in and behindmangroves...........................................................373.4.1 High-technology methods..........................373.4.2 Low-technology methods...........................453.5 Relative sea level trends ....................................533.5.1 Tide gauges...............................................543.5.2 Proxy methods...........................................563.6 Sedimentation rates under mangroves ............613.6.1 High-technology: sediment elevations.......613.6.2 High-technology: radiocarbon datesfrom stratigraphy.......................................613.6.3 Low-technology: sedimentation stakes......633.6.4 How to interpret vulnerability.....................643.7 Adjacent ecosystem resilience..........................673.7.1 Coral reefs.................................................673.7.2 Sea grass..................................................69ix3.8 Climate (rainfall) modeling.................................723.9 Compilation of local community knowledge ....743.10 Overview of resource requirements forthe vulnerability assessment.............................784.0 Interpreting a Vulnerability Assessment 794.1 Ranking the results.............................................794.2 Interpreting the vulnerability rank.....................815.0 Developing Adaptation Measures 865.1 Reduction of non-climate stressors..................875.1.1 Improve local management.......................885.1.1.1 Reduce human impacts on mangroves ..895.1.1.2 Foster mangrove green shields.............905.1.2 Improve legislation.....................................905.1.3 Establish strategic protected areas............905.1.4 Rehabilitate degraded mangroves.............925.1.4.1 Selection of “climate-smart”mangrove species.................................935.1.4.2 Replanting practices..............................935.1.4.3 Propagule collection..............................945.1.4.4 Planting propagules..............................955.1.4.5 Wild seedling collection andtransplanting.........................................975.1.4.6 Nursery raising of seedlings..................985.1.4.7 Planting seedlings.................................985.1.4.8 Monitoring and ongoing managementof replanted areas.................................985.2 Active adaptation options...................................995.2.1 Manage for accretion in mangroves...........995.2.2 Plan inland migration areas.....................1025.3 Ongoing monitoring and evaluation................1026.0 Conclusions 1047.0 References 105Contents continues on next pageClimate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning for Mangrove Systems | v

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    6.0 ConclusionsClimate change, part

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    7.0 ReferencesBosire, J. O., Dahdou

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    7.0 ReferencesForbes, A. T., & Cyru

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    7.0 ReferencesKovacs, J. M., Wang,

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    7.0 ReferencesRogers, K., Saintilan

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    8.0 GlossaryAbscission collar A reg

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    8.0 GlossaryLiDAR Light Detection a

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    Photo: Rob Anders

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    Appendix: Data Sheets120 | Climate

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    Appendix: Data SheetsData sheet for

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