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Technical Report #19 - Chelsea Center for Recycling and Economic ...

Technical Report #19 - Chelsea Center for Recycling and Economic ...

The volume

The volume and type of wood generated from the construction of residential and nonresidentialbuildings may change over time with the substitution of materials in construction practices.Traditional sources of wood for construction products have been strained for some timenow and have led to a major focus on alternative products. The introduction of OSB as a plywoodsubstitute has dramatically reduced the volume of plywood consumed in home buildingover the past ten years, while laminated veneer lumber (LVL) has made significant inroads inconstruction as an alternative to high-grade, large diameter timber. These products are in manycases specifically designed to replace conventional wood products for structural applicationsand to use lower-grade wood species.Wood waste generated during the construction of homes in Massachusetts are in mostinstances, not source separated, but rather commingled with other scrap building materials tosave the contractor significant time, money, and labor. These materials often are handled by awaste hauler and delivered to either a transfer station for disposal in a landfill or to a recyclingfacility that can separate the commingled materials.Some communities such as Will County, Illinois, have offered incentives to builders tosource separate and recycle their materials on site. The Will County Land Use and WasteServices Division offers rebates on a portion of the building permit cost through a ResidentialBuilders Permit Reimbursement Program. Under the program a contractor would be reimbursed50% of the permit fee for recycling one material, 75% for recycling two materials, and100% for recycling three or more materials with a cap of $5,000 per year.In a study conducted by the Triangle J Council of Governments of North Carolina inJune 1993, the costs involved in separating wood materials from the C & D waste stream versussource separation on-site were examined. The results show the improved rate of recovery to bebetween 75% and 90% for source-separated materials (Table 5).Table 5: Triangle J Cost Overview of Processing Materials - 1993MATERIALSOURCESEPARATEDWood &RubbleCommingledC & DCAPITALCOSTCAPACITY(millions $)CAPITALCOST(tons/day)ANNUALTONS(per ton cap.)RECOVERY(per worker)RATE%0.5 - 1.0 50-100 5,000 - 10,000 2,000 - 4,000 75-90%1.0-2.0 100-250 8,000 - 13,000 4,000 - 5,000 50-80%8

4. Wood in Municipal Solid WasteA breakdown of the national municipal solid waste stream (MSW) for 1995 is illustratedin Table 6. According the U.S. EPA, in 1996 a total of 209.7 million tons of municipal solidwaste was generated. In Massachusetts, according to the state’s Solid Waste Plan, total generationof MSW for 1996 was 7,330,000 tons. Using EPA and Department of Environmental Protectiondata, Dorn and Associates 1 estimates 523,500 tons of wood entered the MSW stream inMassachusetts during 1996. They estimate an aggregate recovery for MSW wood at 39%. Thesefigures include some residential wood and post-commercial wood waste in the form of cut-offsfrom remodeling and renovations, manufacturing, dunnage, and shipping pallets. The USDASouthern Research Station in conjunction with Virginia Tech estimated that in 1995 over 223.6million pallets (6.16 million tons) entered municipal solid waste and C & D landfills.The municipal solid waste stream is generally too complex to consider separating thewood waste component, and attempts to do so, mechanically or otherwise, would probably notbe economically viable.Table 6: Municipal Solid Waste Stream, 1995Yard Trimmings13%Paper/Paperboard39%Other10%Glass6%Food10%Wood5%Plastics9%Metals8%5. Tree Trimming MaterialsThe EPA definition of municipal solid waste includes yard-trimming materials. Theabove breakdown of components for 1995 indicates that yard trimmings were 13.4% of the totalmunicipal solid waste stream. However, during that time some twenty-three states, including1 Strategic Plan to Promote the Use of Recyclable Materials in Massachusetts, Phase 1 Report: Analysis of MassachusettsRecyclable Materials Supply and Demand, Prepared for The Chelsea Center for Recycling and EconomicDevelopment By Dorn and Associates, Apex, N.C. 1998.9

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