International migration and national development - Hein De Haas
1. Introduction 1In the debate on migration and development, the perspective of migrant sending statesis often largely ignored. This is unfortunate, because the various interests and viewsof individuals and institutions in countries of origin have to be taken into account indesigning effective migration policies. The attitude of developing countries towardsinternational migration is often ambiguous, although the reasons for this ambiguityoften differ from those of receiving states.While trying to prevent a ‘brain drain’, sending states increasingly try to encourageparticular forms of migration because the associated remittances and a potential ‘braingain’ through a counter movement of skills and knowledge are supposed to bebeneficial to national development. There is also increasing interest among receivinggovernments and development agencies to support the transnational engagements ofimmigrant or diaspora organisations (de Haas 2006a).This coincides with increasing recognition of the potentially vital and positive role ofinternational migration in strategies for international development. In the light of pastfailures with policies to limit emigration of the low and highly skilled (cf. Castles2004; de Haas 2006b), more and more sending countries are actively designingpolices to maximising the positive development impact of migration while minimisingits negative effects.Such policies might include various measures such as the targeted training ofprofessionals for work abroad (cf. the Philippines), policies to facilitate remittances,investments and (temporary or permanent) return of migrants (cf. Turkey, Moroccoand various Asian countries) as well as policies to ‘court the Diaspora’ throughgranting migrants voting rights, fostering links with migrants’ associations abroad orsupporting development projects initiated by such migrants (cf. Mexico’s tres-porunoprojects) (cf . de Haas 2005).Nigeria plays a key role in African migrations. As Africa’s demographic giant,Nigeria has become increasingly involved in international migration to Europe, theGulf countries and South Africa. Yet Nigeria is also a source and destination countrymigration within west-Africa (Adepoju 2004).Considering the key role Nigeria plays in African migration systems, its role asdestination, transit and source country, and considering the fact that it is bothconfronted with the negative and positive dimensions of migration; improvedsystematic insight in the views and interests of Nigerian state and non-statestakeholders is essential in designing more effective migration and development1 With the exception of quotations, this report has purposefully avoided the tempting but inappropriateuse of metaphors and expressions such as ‘migration flows’, ‘illegal immigrants’ or ‘combating illegalimmigration’, because they either tend to be inaccurate representations of the true magnitude of thephenomenon (such as migration flows) or are value-laden, such as in the case of ‘illegal’ and‘combating’. It is questionable whether a person can be illegal, and whether migration policies shouldbe compared to warfare. Therefore, the report attempts to use more neutral descriptive terms.
policies. Surprisingly few empirical data on Nigerian migration and related policies isavailable beyond the issue of trafficking of sex workers to Europe.To gain this insight, this study aims at identifying of key issues, obstacles andpotential synergies in maximising the positive effects of migration on nationaldevelopment and minimising the negative effects from the perspective of the Nigerianstate, key civil society actors and their organisations. This goal has been achievedthrough the study of available documentation (articles, reports, policy documents,undocumented notes) and a series of interviews with 22 persons representing 18institutions, ranging from Nigerian ministries and agencies, local NGOs, Europeanand African foreign embassies to several multilateral organisations such as the IOM,ILO and ECOWAS (see the annex for a complete list of people interviewed). Theinterviews were conducted from 26 to 30 June 2006 in Abuja.Due to the limited number of interviews, and the general lack of data and empiricalstudies, this study does not pretend to be comprehensive. Rather, it tries to throw lighton the major migration trends and to identify the major policy issues and dilemmasfrom the perspective of Nigerian stakeholders. The conclusions and hypotheses of thisstudy might also be useful as a basis for further study and verification. Information inthis report is based on the interviews, unless reference is made to written sources.2. Nigerian migrations2.1. Basic facts on NigeriaWith an estimated number of 140 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populouscountry in Africa. It became a British protectorate in 1891 (although initially thismainly comprised the coastal areas), and became independent in 1960. Nigeria hasmore than 250 different ethnic and linguistic groups, with the major divide runningbetween the predominantly Muslim north and the predominantly Christian south. Thelargest ethnic groups are the Hausa-Fulani (north), Yoruba (southwest) and Ibo(southeast). Nigerian is a federal republic, with the 36 states enjoying considerablepolitical and juridical autonomy. Lagos is the country’s economic capital and with anestimated population of between 10 to 15.5 million people Africa’s second largestcity. Centrally located Abuja was proclaimed as the nation’s capital in 1976, locatedin the federal capital territory state, although the actual move from Lagos to Abujatook place in 1991. Other major cities are Kano in the north, Ibadan in the southwestand Port Harcourt in the southeast, a major site of oil refineries.From 1966 until 1999, Nigeria has been ruled by several military dictators except fora short period of civilian administration between 1979 and 1983. Besides the severalcoups, the country’s history has been characterised by a series of minor and majorviolent inter-ethnic conflicts, the bloodiest of which was the Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970) between Nigeria and the breakaway republic of Biafra.. Democracy wasformally restored in 1999, when current president Olusegun Obasanjo was elected.Nigeria is an influential member of the African Union and the Commonwealth ofNations. It is also member and hosts the secretariat of the Economic Community ofWest African States (ECOWAS), which was founded in 1975.2