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ITT's Place in the Cycle of Water - Water Solutions

ITT's Place in the Cycle of Water - Water Solutions

The

The Cycle of Water: Wastewaterindustrial WASTEwater, TREATMENT AND REuseWater Reuse“Reused water” refers to recycled wastewater treatedto improve its quality. Water recycled for reuse canserve in many capacities where it is unnecessary to usehigh-quality potable (or drinkable) water. Non-potableuses include irrigation, wetland restoration, industrialwashing and cooling, fire protection, geothermicenergy production and car washing.Water reuse for non-potable purposes has been awidely accepted practice around the world for decadesand eases pressure on water supplies and conservespotable water reserves.Increased population and development have ledsome communities to supplement their potable waterresources with appropriately treated reclaimed water.Supplementing potable water supplies with reclaimedwater is known as “potable water reuse.”There are two kinds of potable water reuse; directand indirect. Direct potable water reuse refers to themerging of potable and reclaimed water supplies inthe distribution system after both supplies have lefttheir respective treatment plants. Indirect potablewater reuse refers to the insertion of reclaimed waterresources into existing natural resources, such asrivers, lakes, streams or aquifers. Media filtration is aneffective method for treating water for reuse.Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR)in Water ReuseDual-stage membrane bioreactors (MBR) for advancedtreatment of industrial wastewater can deliver ahigher quality effluent in a smaller footprint thanis normally associated with conventional activatedsludge processing systems. Dual-Stage MBR systemsare a complete and continuous process, acceptingwastewater with high loadings of BiochemicalOxygen Demand (BOD), suspended solids and othercontaminants and yield an excellent quality effluentthat can be suitable for direct discharge to surfacewater bodies (depending on local regulations) and“low grade” reuse applications such as vehiclewashing. The water can be further treated withpolishing processes (for instance, reverse osmosis) toyield potable water.CASE STORY:ITT Process Cleans ComplexWaste Stream for IndustrialPlant in SpainThe DuPont Corporation operates a worldclasschemicals and fibers manufacturingcomplex on the north coast of Spain.Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) technologyfrom ITT’s Sanitaire brand was selectedto meet the challenging waste treatmentneeds for this growing site, which has hadenvironmental protection as a core objectiveand operating principle from its inception.ITT’s Place In The Cycle of Water: Everything But The Pipes

The Cycle of Water: Wastewaterindustrial WASTEwater, TREATMENT AND REuseCASE STORY:ITT Membrane Filtration toHelp at Zero-Discharge TextileFactory in IndiaMoving to comply with new regulations,a textile plant in India installed ITT MBR,granular activated carbon and membranefiltration technologies to provide a totalsolution that deals with a complex wastestream, allowing recovered chemicals andtreated water to be reused.The growth of membrane bioreactors in the globalmarketplace is a direct result of water scarcity andthe increasing need to reduce levels of solids andnutrients in effluent to meet more stringent treatmentrequirements and to allow for water reuse.In general, any wastewater source that can be treatedusing activated sludge can be treated using the MBRprocess. Until recently, traditional activated sludgeprocesses have been used for most applicationsbecause of their relatively low cost. However, MBRcosts have been dropping and can be comparableor less than conventional treatment, especially wheneffluent quality requirements are more stringent.MBR is also suited for higher-strength wastes, whereconventional treatment is inappropriate.In a traditional activated sludge process, wastewateris introduced into a biological treatment tank whereorganic contaminants are reduced and nutrientsremoved. The resultant biomass or sludge then flowsto a clarifier or settling tank where solids separateout and effluent can be taken off and filtered prior todisinfection. Where a higher degree of effluent qualityis required before disposal or reuse, an additionalmicrofiltration or ultrafiltration step may be required.Membrane bioreactors, on the other hand, usethe physical barrier provided by an ultrafiltrationmembrane instead of a settling tank to separatesolids from liquid. Thus the effluent is of significantlyhigher quality and little, if any, additional treatment isrequired prior to disposal or reuse.Wastewater Lagoon TreatmentWastewater lagoons typically are used as the preferredmethod of treatment where there is domestic waste,sufficient land, and low flow rates. Typically theprocess involves one or two aeration ponds where thewaste is exposed to biological treatment followed by apond where solids are settled out.The Federal Clean Water Act regulates both BiologicalOxygen Demand (BOD) and Total SuspendedSolids (TSS) under the National Pollution DischargeElimination System (NPDES) standards. The regulationsplace limits on discharges into surface waters, as wellas what minimum technologies must be in place byindustry. Industry and Municipalities are issued permitsthat allow them to discharge at specific regulatedlevels. Due to the regulated discharge limits, manysystems are now required to add treatment practicesto comply with their permit limits.39

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