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ITT's Place in the Cycle of Water - Water Solutions

ITT's Place in the Cycle of Water - Water Solutions

The

The Cycle of Water: Wastewatersludge treatmentSludge is the by-product of wastewater treatment andis generated from:• Primary treatment – primary sludge.• Secondary treatment – includes the portion ofthe return activated sludge that is removed(wasted) so that the biological populationfunctions properly.• Tertiary treatment – secondary sludge (wasteactivated sludge) when biological nitrogen orphosphorus removal is applied or chemicalsludge when phosphorus is precipitated withinorganic chemicals.Biosolids are primarily organic, accumulated solidsseparated from wastewater that has been stabilized bytreatment and can be beneficially used. Sludge is theunstabilized solids separated from wastewater, a termnot interchangeable with biosolids. Sludge may alsobe formed from clean water processes and is typicallycomposed of minerals and chemicals from coagulation/flocculation.Sludge treatment is of vital interest to wastewatertreatment plant operators because this aspect of theprocess tends to consume up to 50% of a plant’soperating budget.Sludge treatment involves primarily thickening,stabilization and dewatering. Thickening is normallyperformed in gravity thickeners but can also beachieved or enhanced by different mechanical methodssuch as belt filter thickeners, drum thickeners orcentrifuges. Stabilization is most often achieved eitherby aeration (aerobic stabilization), anaerobic digestion(with biogas production) or lime stabilization.Dewatering follows stabilization and is achieved eitherby solar drying, belt filter presses, chamber filterpresses or centrifuges.Traditionally, sludge was disposed either to farmlandor to landfill, but methods of reusing sludge haveincluded land reclamation or agriculture, incorporatingit into construction materials and soil and soilimprovers. However, the wastewater industry is movingaway from the quickest and cheapest route for sludgedisposal to a more holistic concept to accommodatethe type of product that end users will purchase orthat might be more beneficial to the environment.In countries all over the world there are laws thatcontrol or limit the use and disposal of sludge as wellas the contents of pollutants in sludge. In addition,worldwide, the sludge volumes are increasing due tohigher output from secondary treatment facilities.CASE STORY:ITT's N-Pumps Provide Solutionfor Digested Sludge in GermanWastewater PlantA wastewater plant in Germany wasexperiencing continual pump stops dueto digested sludge containing rags andabrasive mineral sand. Replacing a screwpump with an N-pump from ITT’s Flygtbrand has resulted in a more reliablecirculation process and substantially loweroperating costs.ITT’s Place In The Cycle of Water: Everything But The Pipes

The Cycle of Water: WastewaterSensingOn-line water quality sensing and analysisinstrumentation at wastewater treatment plants isbeing used increasingly to provide operators withcritical, real-time data to make informed processadjustments and to automate critical plant processesto achieve improved effluent quality, optimize plantperformance, and reduce operating costs. As sensingsystems have become more advanced, accurate andreliable, plant operators have become confident intheir use to achieve what is increasingly being termedas “a better economical effluent.”While up to 70 percent of a plant’s budget is allocatedto energy just for aeration, many plants are todaysuccessfully reducing these costs while improvingmicrobial efficiency by using advanced on-line sensorsto automate and optimize the aeration phase ofsecondary treatment. New digital on-line sensorsare now giving plants the ability to perform “taperedaeration,” to precisely control the quantities of airinto different parts of an aeration basin based on thecurrent dissolved oxygen levels in these areas, and inapproximate proportion to the oxygen demand of themixed liquor under aeration.Reducing the power costs associated with ultraviolet(UV) disinfection can also now be achieved using newon-line sensing technologies. On-line turbidity sensorscombined with new ultraviolet absorbance sensorscan automatically control the power applied to UVsystems, optimizing UV disinfection while eliminatingunnecessary power consumption and extending thelife of expensive UV lamps.Advanced on-line instrumentation and analyticalsystems are being increasingly used to reduce solidshandlingcosts, including automating sludge agecontrol for precise wasting. Continuously monitoringsuspended solids throughout a plant’s solids handlingtrain can help optimize operations by providing acontinuous feed of solids (controlling load) going intodigesters, reducing costly upsets and bottlenecks. Inaddition, today’s more accurate and rugged turbidityand suspended solids sensors are monitoring real-timesolids loadings in dissolved air flotation thickeners tomore precisely control polymer dosing during sludgethickening operations, reducing polymer consumptionby 20 percent and more.CASE STORY:ITT Sensors Help AutomateFluctuating Sludge RetentionTimesWhen a water utility in Cornborough,England was experiencing problems withincreased filamentous growth in the coldermonths due to fluctuating sludge retentiontimes, they turned to ITT for an automatedsolution.Implementing the ITT Royce brand Model7700 SRT Controller helped to solve thisproblem and improve the wastewater plant'soperational capability.47

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