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ITT's Place in the Cycle of Water - Water Solutions

ITT's Place in the Cycle of Water - Water Solutions

Water

Water WorriesThe following information has been sourced from a January 2008 reportfrom Citigroup Global Markets Equity Research: Water Worries, ClimacticConsequences: Update #3ITT’s Place In The Cycle of Water: Everything But The Pipes

The Supply-Demand BalanceIn many regions of the world where the supply of wateris increasingly an issue — in large part because of climatechange — there is also growing demand for water.Water Demand: key factorsAmong the factors driving water demand:• A thirsty consumer sector in emerging markets - water withdrawal rises with livingstandards.• Water-intensive industrial processes in developed economies.• Climate-related issues are key swing factors in the supply-demand balance for this finiteresource.Water Supply: The BasicsBy the estimates of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO), the world contains approximately 1,386 million cubic kilometers (km) of water:• 97.5% of this is salt water.• 2.5% is fresh water.• More than two-thirds of the fresh water is in the shape of ice and permanent snowcover in the Antarctic, the Arctic, and mountainous regions. About one-third is underthe ground, with some of this groundwater accessible for withdrawal — the UnitedNations has cited three estimates that groundwater represents about 20% of globalwater withdrawals.• Only 0.26% of the total amount of fresh water (about 90,000 cubic km) is potentiallyavailable above ground in lakes and river systems.To facilitate human activities there are two distinct water supply sectors:• The drinking water sector, which focuses on the treatment of raw source water toingestible (“potable”) standards for distribution to consumers.• The wastewater sector, which focuses on the collection and treatment of liquid wastefor re-use in a number of ways, including drinking water.53

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