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ITT's Place in the Cycle of Water - Water Solutions

ITT's Place in the Cycle of Water - Water Solutions

Glossary

Glossary of Key TermsCollection SystemIn wastewater, a system of conduits, typicallyunderground pipes, that receive and convey sanitarywastewater or storm water.Combined Sewers Overflow (CSO)Traditional utility/municipality sewerage systemscombine domestic waste and surface water runoffdrainage which is channeled through the conventionalwastewater treatment plant. Extreme wet weatherconditions with heavy rainwater or snow melt runoffcan overload older sewage treatment plants whichhave triggered regulatory review and recommendedactions to address “CSOs.”ConcentratorA solids contact unit used to decrease the watercontent of sludge or slurry.ConditioningThe chemical, physical, or biological treatment ofsludges to improve their dewaterability.Continuous-Flow TankA tank through which liquid flows continuously at itsnormal rate of flow, as distinguished from a fill-anddrawor batch system.Conventional TreatmentWell-known or well-established water or wastewatertreatment processes, excluding advanced or tertiarytreatment. It typically consists of primary andsecondary treatment. Conventional water treatmentconsists of sedimentation and filtration.DecantTo draw off the upper layer of liquid after the densermaterial (a solid or another liquid) has settled.DecompositionThe breakdown of complex material into simplersubstances by chemical or biological processes.DenitrificationThe removal of nitrate-nitrogen from wastewatereffluent by the biological conversion of nitrate (NO3) tonitrogen gas in an anoxic environment.DesalinationThe removal of dissolved inorganic salts from asolution such as water to produce a liquid whichis free from dissolved salts. Desalination is typicallyaccomplished by distillation, reverse osmosis, orelectrodialysis.Dewater(1) To extract a portion of the water present in asludge or slurry. (2) To drain or remove water from anenclosure. A structure may be dewatered so that it canbe inspected or repaired.Diffused AerationInjection of air under pressure through submergedporous plates, perforated pipes, or other devicesto form small air bubbles from which oxygen istransferred to the liquid as the bubbles rise to thewater surface.Digestion(1) The biological decomposition of the organicmatter in sludge, resulting in partial liquefaction,mineralization, and volume reduction. (2) The processcarried out in a digester.DisinfectionThe treatment of water to inactivate, destroy, and/or remove pathogenic bacteria, viruses, cysts andother microorganisms for the purpose of making thewater microbiologically safe. Disinfection may involvethe use of disinfecting chemicals such as chlorine,iodine, ozone or hydrogen peroxide: or it may involvephysical processes such as distillation, microfiltration,ultrafiltration, membrane filtration boiling, orultraviolet radiation.Dissolved Air FlotationA clarification process whereby solids in the influentstream are removed by floating them to the surfacerather than settling them. This is accomplished usingmicrobubbles that are mixed with the influent solids,attaching to the solids, causing them to rise to thesurface along with the bubbles. As the blanket formson the surface, the solids are skimmed off.ITT’s Place In The Cycle of Water: Everything But The Pipes

Glossary of Key TermsDistribution SystemsIn a water supply, a system of conduits or canals usedto capture a water supply and convey it to a commonpoint.Dry WellA dry compartment in a pumping station, near orbelow pumping level, where the pumps are located.EffluentWastewater or other liquid, partially or completelytreated or in its natural state, flowing out of a reservoir,basin, treatment plant, or industrial treatment plant, orpart thereof.EjectorA device for moving a fluid or solid by entraining it in ahigh-velocity stream of air or water.Equalizing BasinA holding basin in which variations in flow andcomposition of a liquid are averaged. Such basins areused to provide a flow of reasonably uniform volumeand composition to a treatment unit. Also calledbalancing reservoir.FiltrationThe process of contacting a dilute liquid suspensionwith filter media for the removal of suspended orcolloidal matter or for the dewatering of concentratedsludge. Also see “Membrane Filtration.”Final EffluentThe effluent from the final treatment unit of awastewater or water treatment plant.Final SedimentationThe separation of solids from wastewater in the lastsettling tank of a treatment plant.FlocculationIn water and wastewater treatment, the agglomerationof colloidal and finely divided suspended matter aftercoagulation by gentle stirring by either mechanical orhydraulic means. For biological wastewater treatmentin which coagulation is not used, agglomeration maybe accomplished biologically.Flotation ClarificationThe release of air bubbles to float solids to the surfacerather than settle them.GritThe heavy suspended mineral matter in water orwastewater, such as sand, gravel, or cinders. It isremoved in a pretreatment unit called a grit chamberto avoid abrasion and wearing of subsequenttreatment devices.HeadworksThe initial structures and devices of a water orwastewater treatment plant.Jet AerationA method of adding dissolved oxygen to mixed liquorby injecting an air-water mixture through nozzles intothe reactor.Lift StationA structure that contains pumps and appurtenantpiping, valves, and other mechanical and electricalequipment for pumping water, wastewater, or otherliquid. Also called a pumping station.Membrane FiltrationMembrane filtration involves the removal of particulatematter from water that passes through the semipermeablemembrane known as permeate. Theliquid containing the retained constituents is knownas the concentrate. Membrane processes includemicrofiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration(NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis (ED).Municipal Wastewater TreatmentTypically includes the treatment of domestic,commercial, and industrial wastes.Oil Separation(1) Removal of insoluble oils and floating greasefrom municipal wastewater. (2) Removal of soluble oremulsified oils from industrial wastewater.OsmosisThe process of diffusion of a solvent through asemipermeable membrane from a solution of lowerconcentration to one of higher concentration.75

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