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ITT's Place in the Cycle of Water - Water Solutions

ITT's Place in the Cycle of Water - Water Solutions


Glossary of Key TermsOxidation ProcessAny method of wastewater treatment for the oxidationof the putrescible organic matter.Ozone(O 3) Oxygen in a molecular form with three atoms ofoxygen forming each molecule, used in disinfectionprocess.Potable WaterWater that is considered safe for human consumptiondue to its low or undetectable concentrations ofchemical or biological contamination.Preliminary TreatmentUnit operations, such as screening, comminution,and grit removal, that prepare the wastewater forsubsequent major treatment.Pretreatment1. Treatment of industrial wastewater at its sourcebefore discharge to municipal collection systems.2. Treatment of source water prior to membranes.Primary EffluentThe liquid portion of wastewater leaving primarytreatment process.Primary Sedimentation TankThe first settling tank, used for the removal ofsettleable solids through which wastewater is passed ina treatment works. Sometimes called a primary clarifier.Primary Treatment(1) The first major treatment process in a wastewatertreatment facility, used for the purpose ofsedimentation. (2) The removal of a substantialamount of suspended matter, but little or no colloidaland dissolved matter. (3) Wastewater treatmentprocesses typically consisting of clarification with orwithout chemical treatment to accomplish solid-liquidseparation.Pump PitA dry well or chamber, below ground level, in which apump is located.Pumping Station1. A facility housing relatively large pumps and theirappurtenances. Pump house is the typical term forshelters for small water pumps.2. A facility containing lift pumps to facilitatewastewater collection or reclaimed waterdistribution.Raw SludgeSettled sludge promptly removed from the primarysedimentation tanks before significant decompositionhas occured.Raw WastewaterWastewater before it receives any treatment.ReactorThe container, vessel, or tank in which a chemical orbiological reaction occurs.Receiving WaterA river, lake, ocean, or other watercourse into whichwastewater or treated effluent is discharged.Recycle1. To return water after some type of treatment forfurther use; typically implies a closed system.2. To recover useful materials from segregatedsolid waste.Return Activated Sludge(RAS) Settled activated sludge returned to mix withincoming raw or primary settled wastewater. Alsocalled returned sludge.ScreeningA preliminary treatment process that removes largesuspended or floating solids from raw wastewater toprevent subsequent plugging of pipes or damage topumps.Scum RemovalSeparation of floating grease and oil from wastewatertypically during preliminary or primary treatment.ITT’s Place In The Cycle of Water: Everything But The Pipes

Glossary of Key TermsSDISilt Density Index (SDI) testing quantifies the amountof particulate contamination in a water source.SDI is widely accepted for estimating the rate atwhich colloidal and particulate fouling will occur inmembrane treatment systems. An SDI of less thanfive is considered acceptable for the reverse osmosissystems. This means that at values of SDI of less thanfive, the membranes should foul at a very low rate.Even though the concept works most of the time, thereare exceptions when a lower SDI (less than three) isdesirable due to the nature of the suspended solids inthat feed water.Secondary Treatment(1) Typically, a level of treatment that producessecondary effluent. (2) Sometimes usedinterchangeably with the concept of biologicalwastewater treatment, particularly the activated-sludgeprocess. Commonly applied to treatment that consistschiefly of clarification, followed by a biological processwith separate sludge collection and handling.SedimentationThe process of subsidence and decomposition ofsuspended matter or other liquids by gravity. It istypically accomplished by reducing the velocity of theliquid below the point at which it can transport thesuspended material. It can be variously classified asdiscrete, flocculent, hindered, and zone sedimentation.It may be enhanced by coagulation and flocculation.Also called settling.SettlingSettling takes place in a tank or basin in which water,wastewater, or other liquid containing settleable solidsis retained for a sufficient time, and in which thevelocity of flow is sufficiently low to remove by gravitya part of the suspended matter. See sedimentationtank.Sludge(1) Accumulated solids separated from liquids duringthe treatment process that have not undergone astabilization process. (2) Removed material resultingfrom chemical treatment, coagulation, flocculation,sedimentation, flotation, or biological oxidation ofwater or wastewater. (3) Any solid material containinglarge amounts of entrained water collected duringwater or wastewater treatment.Sludge ThickeningThe increase in solids concentration of sludge resultingfrom gravitational force in a sedimentation ordigestion tank.SlurryA watery mixture of insoluble matter, such as limeslurry.SumpA tank or pit that receives drainage and stores ittemporarily and from which the discharge is pumpedor ejected.Tertiary TreatmentThe treatment of wastewater beyond the secondaryor biological stage; term typically implies the removalof nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, and ahigh percentage of suspended solids. Term now beingreplaced by advanced wastewater treatment.WastewaterSpent or used water of a community or industrycontaining dissolved and suspended matter.Wet WellsA component of a pumping station that creates areservoir of the fluid from which the pumps draw theirsuction.Skimming(1) The process of diverting water from the surface ofa stream or conduit by means of a shallow overflow.(2) The process of removing grease or scum from thesurface of wastewater in a tank.77

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