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Safety_Series_025_1968 - gnssn - International Atomic Energy ...

Safety_Series_025_1968 - gnssn - International Atomic Energy ...

This publication is no

This publication is no longer validPlease see http://www.ns-iaea.org/standards/

This publication is no longer validPlease see http://www.ns-iaea.org/standards/INTRODUCTIONExposure to ionizing radiation can give rise to lesions both inthe exposed individual and in his descendants, i. e. somatic lesionsand genetic lesions.With the increasing use .of ionizing radiation by man, an increasingnumber of persons incur the hazard of exposure to ionizingradiations. It is obvious, however, that man derives great benefitsfrom the use of ionizing radiations. In principle the. problem consistsof keeping the radiation dose within limits such that the risk is notexcessive either for the individual or the population as a whole. Thishas led to the notion of 'permissible dose1'. The aims of radiologicalprotection are to ensure that nobody is exposed unduly to radiation,and thus to prevent or reduce to a minimum .somatic lesions and unfavourablemodifications of hereditary genetic features.To ensure the radiological protection of workers exposed toionizing radiation, it is necessary to set up a strict system of surveillance,including both procedures for the individual physical detectionof absorbed radiation and medical supervision of,the workers'health. As m edical examination methods at present are not sufficientlysensitive to detect the effects of the low radiation doses thatcorrespond to the maximum permissible doses to which workers maybe occupationally exposed, it is sometimes concluded that medicalsupervision is only of secondary importance and may even be abandonedif there is adequate physical monitoring. In fact, however,medical supervision and physical monitoring are not only compatiblebut even complementary: physical monitoring is essential for evaluatingthe radiation doses received and preventing over-exposure,while medical examinations are necessary to follow trends in theindividual's health. The methods of surveillance needed depend onthe particular nature of the radiation hazards to which workers maybe exposed. These hazards have two main form s: exposure toexternal radiation, and internal contamination by radioactive substances.Either of them can cause irradiation of the organism andthis irradiation may occur either regularly, under normal workingconditions, or in an unforeseen manner following an accident.The first part of this volume is concerned wich the basic radiobiologicalphenomena, since understanding the problems connectedwith the medical supervision of workers exposed to ionizing radiationscalls for an adequate knowledge of their biological effects.Basic data on ionizing radiation are followed by descriptions ofradiobiological phenomena and the main radiopathological distur-1

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