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Safety_Series_025_1968 - gnssn - International Atomic Energy ...

Safety_Series_025_1968 - gnssn - International Atomic Energy ...

This publication is no

This publication is no longer validPlease see http://www.ns-iaea.org/standards/"If m aximum p erm issib le lev els included background radiation,the allow able contribution from m an-m ade sou rces - which are theonly ones that can be controlled - would be uncertain and would haveto be different for different lo ca litie s. A ccordingly, doses resultingfrom natural background radiation are excluded from all m axim ump e rm issib le d oses recom m en d ed " by the IC RP.3.1. 2. 2. M an-m ade radiationIn the field o f m an -m ade radiation two types o f exposu re a renow distinguished, i.e. m ed ical and n on -m ed ica l. This distinctionis made partly because m edical sou rces o f radiation contribute s ig ­nificantly to the radiation exposure o f the population as a whole, andpartly becau se o f th eir sp ecia l a sp ect. In the field of m ed ica l e x ­posu re, it is obvious that any radiologica l examination o r treatm entis p e rfo rm e d fo r good re a so n s, i.e. b eca u se it is su p p osed to ben eeded. E ven so, duplication m ay happen ow ing to d e fe cts inadm in istrative organ ization , and abuses do o c c u r .R adiological exam ination o r treatm ent undertaken deliberatelyhas the sp ecia l ch a ra cteristic o f being designed to ensure the in d i­vidual's health. T h erefore, though it does to som e extent constitutea hazard, it cannot be regarded as im p erm issib le p ra ctice . F romthe health point of view the ch oice is between carrying out the exam i­nation o r treatm en t fo r the sake o f the in d ivid u a l's health and notdoing so in o rd e r not to expose him to radiation. Obviously the d isadvantageis triflin g com p ared to that involved in not p erform in g ad iagn osis o r treatm en t.As far as the standards are con cern ed, all types o f m edical exposureare accordin gly excluded too, so as to prevent w orkers frombeing discrim in ated against and assigned to another job m e re ly b e ­cause they have undergone ra d iolog ica l exam ination o r radiotherapy.3.1.3. Concept o f maximum p erm issible doseIn defining the con cep t o f m axim um p e rm is s ib le d ose theICRP em phasizes that any m an-m ade radiation involves risk s. Hereare the very w ords used:"A ny departure from the environm ental conditions in which manhas evolved m ay entail a risk o f deleteriou s effects. It is th ereforeassum ed that long continued exposure to ionizing radiation additionalto that due to natural radiation background in volves som e r is k ." No66

This publication is no longer validPlease see http://www.ns-iaea.org/standards/radiation d ose in e x ce ss o f what resu lts from natural radiation canbe co n sid e re d as in n ocu ous. "H ow ev er, m an cannot en tirely d is ­pense with the use o f ionizing radiations, and th erefore the problemin p ractice is to lim it the radiation dose to that which involves a riskthat is not u nacceptable to the individual and to the population atla r g e . T his is ca lled a p e rm is s ib le dose."T h e re fo re "it is em p h asized that the m axim um p e rm is s ib led oses recom m en d ed are m axim um values; the C om m ission r e ­com m ends that all doses be kept as low as practicable, and that anyu nn ecessary exposure be a v oid ed ."Depending on whether the concept o f perm issib le dose is appliedto an individual o r to the population at la rg e , the em p h asis shouldbe put on the p reven tion o f som a tic o r o f gen etic e ffe c ts .3.1.4. C ategories o f p erson s exposedHuman bein gs lia b le to radiation ex p osu re a re cla s s ifie d intotwo c a te g o rie s :(1) In dividuals who a re o ccu p a tio n a lly e x p o sed to rad ia tion ;(2) Individual m em b ers o f the public (including p erson s livingin the v icin ity of con trolled a re a s).F o r each ca tegory , international organ iza tion s have sp ecifiedthe values of the maximum perm issible doses (these maximum valuesapply n eith er to exposu re due to natural backgrou nd radiation norto ex p osu re fo r m e d ica l p u rp o ses).3.2. BASIC STANDARDS3.2.1. GeneralT he b a s ic stan dards con stitute the c o r n e r -s to n e o f the w holesystem of regulations in the field o f ra d iologica l p rotection . Theyare supplem ented by p a rticu la r p ro v isio n s relatin g to the v a riou stypes o f ex p osu re, which constitute what m ay be ca lled d erivedstan d ard s.The first ca tegory o f p erson s exposed is what m ainly con cern su s. T hese a re w o rk e rs who are su bjected to reg u la r occu p ation alexposu re in the co u rse o f th eir w ork. A dm ittedly, it is d ifficu lt todeterm ine p r e c is e ly what is meant by 're g u la r1, yet it would be approp riate to give h ere a convenient adm inistrative cla ssifica tio n ofw ork ers, depending on the conditions o f w ork.67

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