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Safety_Series_025_1968 - gnssn - International Atomic Energy ...

Safety_Series_025_1968 - gnssn - International Atomic Energy ...

This publication is no

This publication is no longer validPlease see http://www.ns-iaea.org/standards/work if there is no m edical objection and bearing in mind his previouse x p o su re s, h is health, age, s p e cia l qu a lifica tion s and s o c ia l ande co n o m ic r e s p o n s ib ilitie s .3. 2. 2. 6. A ccid en ta l exposu reA ccidental exposure exceeding the lim its established for norm alw orking con ditions d iffe rs fro m e m e rg e n cy ex p osu re in that it isinevitable and u n foreseen . W orkers w ill be re fe rre d to the com p e­tent m ed ical authorities and d ecision s con cern in g any fu rth er w orkw ill be taken in the sam e way as provided in the ca se o f em ergen cyexposu re (section 3 . 2. 2. 4).3. 2. 2. 7. A ccidental intakesA cciden tal intake d iffers from em ergen cy intake only in that itis in evitable and u n foreseen . W ork ers w ill be r e fe r r e d to thecom petent m edical authorities and d ecision s con cern in g any furtherw ork w ill be taken in the sam e way as p rovid ed in the c a s e o f d e ­liberate em ergency exposure to radioactive m aterial (section 3.2.2.5).3. 2. 2. 8. Exposure of fem ale w orkersIn the ca se o f fem ale w ork ers regard m ust be had to potentialo r actual pregnancy and m axim um p e r m is s ib le d oses fo r w om eno f re p rod u cib le age and pregnant w om en m ust be esta b lish eda cco rd in g ly .W om en o f rep rod u ctiv e age should be assign ed job s w h ere e x ­p osu re o f the abdom en is lim ited to 1. 3 re m s o v e r a p e rio d o f 13w eek s, w hich c o rresp o n d s to 5 rem s a y e a r d e liv e re d at an evenrate. Under these con dition s, the d ose d eliv ered to the em b ry oduring the fir s t two m onths o f pregn ancy would n orm a lly be under1 rem , which is con sid e re d a ccep ta b le.When pregnancy has been diagnosed, steps must be taken to a s­certa in that the exposu re to which the w om an is su b jected is suchthat the average dose to the foetus during the rem ainder of pregnancyw ill not exceed 1 rem . In ca se s w here the d ose to the foetus m aybe alm ost equal to the d ose to the m oth er - fo r in stance when theabdom en is su b jected to penetrating radiation - th is req u irem en tis usually ensured if the m other is not subjected to dose rates higherthan 1.5 rem s a year.72

This publication is no longer validPlease see http://www.ns-iaea.org/standards/3. 2. 2. 9. Exposure of workers below .18 years of ageIn the case of a p erson whose occupational exposure begins b e ­lo w 18 y e a rs o f age, the d ose m u st not e x ce e d 5 re m s in any oney ear below 18 yea rs o f age, and the dose accum ulated by the age o f30 m ust not exceed 60 re m s. The ILO recom m ends that no w orkershall be engaged in radiation work below the age o f 16 which is alsoadopted by the IAEA.3.3. SECONDARY STANDARDS (DERIVED STANDARDS)3.3.1. GeneralIt w ill be r e c a lle d that the b a s ic stan dards a re e x p r e s s e d inrem s p er unit o f tim e . H ow ever, as d oses cannot be d ire ctlym ea su red in r e m s , the s o -c a lle d 's e c o n d a r y ' stan d ard s a reexpressed in practical units of m easurem ent, i.e. rontgens, particlefluxes and cu ries.The gen era l ru les lay down average valu es; con sequ ently thee x p o su re to w hich in dividuals o r grou p s o f in dividuals have b eensubjected can only be estim ated on the basis of m easurem ents eithero f the environment o r o f the individuals them selves.A ll the 's e co n d a ry stan dards' are a rriv ed at independently ofeach oth er, fo r one p a rticu la r type o f ex p osu re is co n sid e re d anda relationship is established between it and the b asic standards, a s­sum ing it to be the on ly type o f ex p osu re. T hus, to take the v e rysim ple case of X - o r gam m a-radiation, where the quality factor (QF)is equal to 1, an occupationally exposed w orker m ay not re ce iv e onthe average m ore than five rontgens a year, on the understanding thathe is not also exposed to neutrons o r radio nuclide sou rces.As far as radionuclides are con cern ed, a value is set fo r each,fo r exam ple the maximum p erm issib le body burden o r the maximump e r m is s ib le intake o r the m axim um p e r m is s ib le con cen tra tion inair. This value is established in such a way that the type of exposurew ill involve a m axim um exposu re of, fo r instance, 15 rem s a yearfo r a particular organ, assum ing the individual is not exposed to anyother external o r internal radiation.When all types o f exposu re are co n sid e re d , w eighting fa cto rsm ust be taken into account; in oth er w ord s, when se v e ra l hazardsare present at the sam e tim e, each contributes to the total exposure,which m ust not exceed the lim its laid down in the b a sic standards.73

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