Population, Poverty and Environment Population, Poverty ... - IUCN
Table 2.4: Health Statistics in Northern AreasMajor Health Indicators Northern Areas Pakistan2000-01 2000-01Life Expectancy (Years)Male 56.5 (for both) 61Female 63% Population with access toessential drugs NA 65Child HealthNeo-natal Mortality Rate (per 1,000) 38 51Post neo-natal Mortality Rate (per 1,000) 30.5Infant Mortality Rate (per 1,000) 70 81.5% of Children Age 12 – 23 Months thatreceived full immunization 40 49% of Children under 5 sufferingfrom diarrhoea 42.8 NA% of Children suffering fromRespiratory Diseases NA NAFamily PlanningContraceptive Prevalence Rate 20 24% unmet need for Family Planning 40 33Women’s HealthMaternal Mortality Rate (Per 100,000) 5 4Total Fertility Rate 6 4.8Household HealthAccess to safe drinking water 40% 60%Access to sanitation 18% 30%16Prevalence of water borne diseases(diarrhoea) NA NAPrevalence of Respiratory diseases NA NAHealth Facilities and PersonnelBasic Health Unit 16 5,171Dispensaries 105 4,635Hospitals 25 876Persons Hospital Bed Ratio 1286 1,495Doctor and Paramedics 140 and 1,033 91,800Doctor Patient Ratio 6217 1,529Doctor-Paramedic Patient Ratio 742 NANotes: NA– Not Available.Sources: Northern Areas Health Project Baseline Survey (2002); Data provided on NAby Pⅅ andSPDC (2001).
Table 2.5: Literacy Rates in the Northern Areas 1981-1998Literacy Rates Total Male Female1981 14 17 31998 33 40 252.3. Environment of Northern AreasThe Northern Areas of Pakistan are located between 35-37 N and 72-75 E. Themajority of the area is mountainous and covers over 72,496 square kilometres.Human settlements are on alluvial fans and terraces from 4,000 ft to 11,500 ftelevation on either side of the Indus and its tributaries where water is available foragriculture. The land comprises of exposed surface of various rock types. Most ofthe rocks are igneous and metamorphic. Geological erosion of these mountains isvery active. The mountain soils are coarse loamy and sandy. Although some fineloamy and fine silty soils are also found.Table 2.6: Summary of present land use in Northern Areas (000 ha)Type of Land Area PercentageMountains/Lakes/Rivers/Glaciers 4,810 66Forest 646 9Rangeland 1,646 23Cultivated Area 58 1Cultivable Waste 90 1Grand Total 7,250 100Source: Department of Forest.Table 2.6 above depicts the land classification of Northern Areas. In comparison toPakistan as a whole, NA represent .7 percent of total population and yet compriseof 9 percent of the total land area. Only 2 percent of the area is termed ‘cultivablearea’ whilst mountains, rivers, lakes and glaciers comprise 66 percent of the totalland area. Forest and rangelands comprise 9 and 23 percent of land respectively.Hence, available land in the mountainous areas is used for arable farming, pastureor forestry. This is dependent on altitude, climate, physiography, soil moisture andsocio-economic conditions. About 60 percent of the area is comprised of steepslopes having a very thin soil base. These slopes are very unstable and they supportpatchy natural vegetation. Large tracts between 900 to 3300 metres supportconiferous forests. In elevations up to 1500 metres rangelands are grazed all yearround. Small ruminants are grazed causing stress on the vegetative cover. Higherelevations between 1500 to 3000 metres are grazed only during summer, thepastoralists moving with the snowline.17The mountain environment of NA provides the poor with critical biological andnatural resources to support livelihoods. This includes arable land and water forfood and nourishment; pastures for livestock; and forests for fuelwood and shelters.