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Population, Poverty and Environment Population, Poverty ... - IUCN

Population, Poverty and Environment Population, Poverty ... - IUCN

7.2. Regional

7.2. Regional and Local Level Interventions7.2.1. Governance Aspectsm Strengthen the access of the poor to all types of resources including technologymmthat is environmentally-sound and appropriate for NASupport local community environmental management and control ofre s o u rces by using community-based conservation project approaches such asM A C PExpand social protection to reduce environmental vulnerability of the poor.These could easily be handled by an NGO like AKRSP or the Khushal PakistanProgramme and would basically mean a form of an insurance programme toprotect the poor against shocks and stress. NAAdministration could also playan instrumental role by initiating a programme in risk reduction or disasterprepardness and post disaster response and relief efforts427.2.2. Environmental and Economic Aspects – Pro-poormmmmmmarkets that bring value to environmentally-friendlypractices and productsPromote high value, low impact, and other ‘biodiversity-friendly’ products.The case in point is the trophy hunting initiative carried out by MACP, whichbrings high returns but has low impact. Moreover, non-timber forest productssuch as medicinal plants have potentially large markets.Promoting the business case and learning from rigorous best practice casestudies. AKRSP is already engaged in enterprise development and marketing.These initiatives can be further expanded to environmentally-friendly practicesand products. Moreover, the private sector can play an integral role inproviding waste management, sanitation and wastewater treatmentPromoting partnerships and capacity building within small businesses that relyon maintenance of biodiversity (e.g. tourism etc.). There are a number of touroperators who profit from the maintenance of NA natural environment.Partnerships with these businesses cab contribute significantly to employmentand investment in the regionTackle environmental degradation by addressing market, policy andinstitutional failures. Here economic valuation methods should be used todemonstrate the benefits of conservation and costs of degradation – a key toolin influencing decision-makers. However, capacity will need to be built in orderthat the government or other organisations can carryout these studiesAddressing the above mentioned failures should be lieu of the ground realities,namely that environmental conservation will ultimately rest on the actions oflocal communities and land/resource users. Currently there are very feweconomic inducements for them to engage in conservation, and many economicdisincentives to do so. In particular, bring positive economic and financialincentives into the ongoing conservation initiatives, assess their economicfeasibility at the local level, and ensure that it is economically and financiallyworthwhile for all sectors of local communities (including the poorest) toengage in conservation.

7.2.3. Social Aspects – Protecting unique knowledge andmmdeveloping and/or transferring relevant technologiesNA are considered the storehouse of biodiversity in Pakistan. It is crucial thatcommitment towards finding better intellectual property protection methodsfor traditional and indigenous knowledge and resources are developed, andfair and equitable benefits is derived from use of this knowledgeMore Research and Development investment into diversity-friendly or reducedimpact pro-poor harvesting and production systems7.2.4. Educational Aspects – Improving awareness throughmmmeducation and communicationMore effective promotion of environmental education and public relations inNAMainstreaming environmental education in teaching curriculaContinued lobbying of mainstream media to address biodiversity andlivelihoods issues. NA media is already active in covering environmental andlivelihood issues.7.3. Adopt Sustainable Livelihoods ApproachIn lieu of the changing and alternative perspectives, in contrast to the conventionalpoverty-environment nexus and vicious downward spiral of need, the sustainablelivelihood approach has gained prominence. For one thing, this approach shifts theanalysis from macro-economic and macro-environmental to a study of how microlevelinstitutions moderate the impacts of the macro environment to fostersustainability (see wb1n0018.worldbank.org/ESSD/NRMTG). The focus here is onpeople in places and how they use their asset and strategies in lieu of macroenvironment.The Sustainable Livelihoods (SL) approach provides a useful framework to analysemountain livelihoods and poverty issues to derive relevant policy inferences(Rasmussen and Parvez, 2002). The starting point of SL is the assets and strategiesof the poor, not their deprivation or condition described in a passive or objectivemanner. The key focus is on developing an understanding of the creative energiseof the poor, and how people and communities strategise to make use of theirexisting human, social, natural, physical and financial capital to overc o m evulnerability and achieve sustainable livelihood outcomes, for example, improvedfood security and sustainable use of natural resources. As Banuri and Khan (2001)point out that this provides an interesting entry point to the evaluation of policies,"namely whether they enhance or diminish the capacity of the poor to cope withand over come their condition, and whether they lead to an accumulation ordecumulation of assets in their control" (p. 177).43Rasmussen and Parvez (2002) see four distinct advantages in adopting the SLapproach for understanding mountain development issues. They are:m SL helps focus attention on people and their livelihoods instead of resourcesand their depletionm SL analysis predominantly focuses on opportunities over constraints. NAmountain communities main asset has been the high levels of social capital

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