Population, Poverty and Environment Population, Poverty ... - IUCN
mmbased on cohesive communities with well-established traditions of cooperationand collective work.SL framework, by defining poverty as a fundamental lack of basic assets haspotential to directly incorporate considerations of mountain specificity such asisolation and fragility that contribute to vulnerability of livelihoods inmountain environmentsSL makes possible integrated and explicit analyses of various conditioningfactors, both exogenous and endogenous, which catalyse or impinge onmountain livelihood development (p. 8).AKRSP, for example, can be seen as an effort to help the poor overcome theirvulnerability by developing their individual and collective capacities. AKRSP doesthis by providing the poor access to credit, encourage savings, invest in their skillsand human re s o u rces, support the construction of infrastru c t u re, and mostimportantly, invest in collective institutions. Programmes such as AKRSP, using thesustainable livelihoods approach, should be adopted in all of the NA.44
REFERENCESAdger, W. N. (1999) Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastalVietnam. World Development, 27(2), 249-269.Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (2000), "An Assessment of Socio-EconomicTrends and Impact in Northern Pakistan (1991 - 1997), AKRSP.Agarwal, A. and Narain (1999) "Community and Household Water Management:The Key to Environmental Regeneration and Poverty Alleviation". Poverty andEnvironment Initiative Background Paper 2, UNDP, New York.Anderson, J. and Hazell, P. (1989) Variability in Grain Yields, Johns HopkinsUniversity Press: Baltimore.Arrow, K. et al. (1995) Economic growth, carrying capacity and the environment.Science, 268, 520 521.Asian Development Bank (2002) Pakistan Poverty Assessment. Islamabad: ADB.Banuri, T. and Khan, S.R. (2001) E n v i ronmental Strategy Background Report.Islamabad: SDPI.Bardhan, P. (1996) Research on Poverty and Development Twenty Years afterRedistribution with Growth. Proceedings of the Annual World Bank Conference onDevelopment Economics, 1995. Supplement to the World Bank Economic Reviewand the World Bank Research Observer, 59–72.Bebbington, A. (1999) "Capitals and Capabilities: A Framework for AnalyzingPeasant Viability, Rural Livelihoods and Poverty". World Development, Vol. 27,No. 12, pp. 2021-2044.Bhatti, M. H., Tetlay, K.A. and Malik, D. (1994) Farming in Northern Pakistan-Results for 1991 & An Interim Evaluation of AKRSP. Gilgit, Northern Areas:AKRSP.Bohle, H.G., Downing, T.E. and Watts, M.J. (1994) Climate Change and SocialVulnerability: Towards a Sociology and Geography of Food Insecurity, GlobalEnvironmental Change, 4(1): 37-48.45B rown, L.; Flavin, C. and French, H. (1998) State of the World: 1998, TheWorldwatch Institute, London and New York: W.W. NortonCavendish W. (1998) "Empirical Regularities in the Poverty-Enviro n m e n tRelationship of African Rural Households". Centre for the Study of AfricanEconomies, Working Paper Series 99-21, London.Chambers, R. (1983) Rural Development: Putting the Last First. New York: Longman.Chambers, R. (1989) "Vulnerability, Coping and Policy", IDS Bulletin, 20(2): 1-7.Chambers, R. and Conway, G. (1992) "Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: PracticalConcepts for the 21st Century", IDS Discussion Paper 296, Brighton: IDS.
IUCN Pakistan ProgrammeNorthern Are
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