4.5. Do Those Who Do Better Initially Progress More Rapidly Over Time?A possible explanation for the widening-gap phenomenon in Taiwan is that those whoperform better in mathematics initially may progress more rapidly over time. To test thishypothesis, I use data derived solely from the TEPS. This is because the TEPS is alongitudinal study and its mathematical IRT scores are suitable for between-gradecomparisons. I divided the sample from an earlier data collection wave into 10 decile groupsaccording to students’ mathematics IRT scores, then estimated the average growth inmathematics scores for each ofthese ten groups in a later follow-up survey. The results ofthis exercise are found in Table 9. For Taiwanese students who attended Grade 7 in 2001,and Grade 9 in 2003, those who performed better in mathematics in Grade 7 tended toimprove more in terms oftheir test scores two years later. This is particularly evident whenthe highest-performing and the lowest-performing decile groups are excluded. The growthofthe top-performing group may have been suppressed by a ceiling effect, while thelowest-performing group may have had more room to grow than other groups.4.6. Does the Widening-Gap Phenomenon Occur Between or Within SocioeconomicGroups?I use data from the TEPS to address the question whether the widening-gap phenomenonoccur between or within socioeconomic groups. I took the father’s level of education toindicate a student’s socioeconomic background. The father’s level of education describedaccording to one of five categories: less than high school, high school, some college, college,and having a graduate degree.Table 10 presents the results for the analysis using data from the TEPS. For those whoattended Grade 7 in 2001 and Grade 9 in 2003, the widening-gap phenomenon occurred toall students, but the phenomenon was twice as significant among students with lessfavorable family backgrounds than among students with more favorable backgrounds.Furthermore, students from more favorable family backgrounds progressed more rapidly in16
mathematics performance as they moved through the grades.5. Discussions and ConclusionsThe widening-gap phenomenon in mathematics performance, which occurred prior toGrade 9 in Taiwan, is unique from an international perspective. It is unique because no othercountry has as large a widening gap as that found in Taiwan. The phenomenon is uniquealso because that it accompanies a significant increase in average performance and aremarkable increase inthe percentage of students reaching advanced internationalbenchmark. Hong Kong, for example, also had a widening-gap phenomenon in mathematicsperformance, but mathematics performance did not improve significantly.Both male and female Taiwanese students in elementary and junior high schoolsexperienced the widening-gap phenomenon in mathematics performance. The widening-gapphenomenon is common to all residential areas, whether they are cities, towns, or thecountry side, and it occurred mainly within classrooms. No other country showed such ahigh level of within-classroom variation, moving from a very low level of within-classroomvariation in Grade 4, to extremely heterogeneous classrooms in Grade 8. This dramaticchange in within-classroom variation between grade levels is distinctive from aninternational perspective.The widening-gap phenomenon in Taiwan is associated with findings that those whoperformed better initially progressed more rapidly over time. Additionally, students withmore favorable family backgrounds improved more significantly over time, and theydisplayed a less significant widening-gap phenomenon amongst themselves.In Taiwanese elementary and junior high schools, most variation in student performanceoccurs within classrooms. In Grade 8, most Taiwanese schools and classrooms areextremely heterogeneous internally in terms of mathematics performance. Thus, rather thanbeing concentrated on a few classrooms or schools, poorly-performing students in Taiwanare dispersed widely across classrooms. Therefore, a policy targeting low-performing17
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The 2017 edition of the Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean consists of three parts. Part I outlines the region’s economic performance in 2016 and analyses trends in the early months of 2017, as well as the outlook for the rest of the year. It examines the external and domestic factors that have influenced the region’s economic performance and draws attention to some of the macroeconomic policy challenges of the prevailing external conditions, with a modest uptick in global economic growth and trade amid persistent uncertainty, especially in relation to political factors.
The thematic section of this edition analyses the characteristics of the current economic cycle in the region (2009-2016) and contrasts it with the two preceding cycles (1990-2001 and 2002-2008). It also identifies and attempts to explain some of the determinants of the cycle and outlines possible strategies for regaining growth.
Part III of this publication may be accessed on the website of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (www.eclac.org). It contains the notes relating to the economic performance of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in 2016 and the first half of 2017, together with their respective statistical annexes. The cut-off date for updating the statistical information in this publication was 30 June 2017.
Construction equipment, also known as heavy equipment, are specially designed machinery for performing construction operations. These equipment are used for different functions such as drilling, hauling, excavating, paving and grading. The global construction equipment market covers different industries including manufacturing, oil and gas, forestry, military and public works. The global construction equipment market is expected to exhibit steady growth in the forecast period 2015-2020. Growing industrial activities and swift residential & commercial development along with increased investment of government in the infrastructure sector, will lead to an overall rise of the global construction equipment market.
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The global luxury hotels market's performance has recovered from the slowdown recorded at the beginning of the historic period (2009-2013) due to the financial crisis and recession. Overall, growth was recorded in the four markets - Americas, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Middle East and Africa - across all key performance indicators (KPIs) during the historic period. Growth is expected to continue over the forecast period (2014-2018) supported by the rise in tourism flows and expenditure.
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Magazine: Intra-Cohort Growth in the Inequality of Mathematics Performance