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Download - Agronomy Day - University of Illinois at Urbana ...

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Department of Crop SciencesFuture use of U.S. agricultural land for ethanol production from corn grainKent RauschKent Rausch, Department ofAgricultural and BiologicalEngineering associateprofessor,krausch@illinois.edu,217-265-0697Rita Mumm, Department of CropSciences emeritus associateprofessor,ritamumm@illinois.eduPeter Goldsmith, Department ofAgricultural and ConsumerEconomics associateprofessor,pgoldsmi@illinois.eduH. H. Stein, Department ofAnimal Sciences professor,hstein@illinois.eduEven though the U.S. is a majorproducer of corn grain, limitshave been established for corngrain use for biofuels. However,the “food vs. fuel” debate and existingpolicy have not adequatelyconsidered future expectationsfor corn and ethanol productionand how these factors will interactwith animal food supply. U.S.ethanol production from corngrain is expected to increase to15 billion gallons, which is thelimit established by the Energy Independenceand Security Act of2007. Based on typical ethanolyields and an average corn yieldof 164.7 bu/acre, 32.9 millionacres would have been requiredto produce 15 billion gallons ofethanol. Ethanol production alsocoproduces DDGS, corn glutenfeed, and corn gluten meal, whichreplace corn and soybean meal inlivestock diets. Currently, DDGSreplaces corn and soybean mealthat require about 12.1 millionacres of corn and soybeans. Objectivesof this work were to estimatenet acreage required forethanol production from corngrain, considering DDGS use inlivestock diets, based on currentand historical production; and toproject future land use for cornethanol production under scenariosthat include expected improvementsin crop production,ethanol yields, and animal feedingtechnologies.Department of Crop SciencesFrom field to bowl: Can we breed for nutrient stability in corn during food processing?TENT DISPLAYSCarrie ButtsCarrie J. Butts, Department ofCrop Sciences graduate studentJosh A. Macke, Department ofCrop Sciences graduateMartin O. Bohn, Department ofCrop Sciences associateprofessor of maize breedingand genetics,mbohn@illinois.eduNicki J. Engeseth, Departmentof Food Science and HumanNutrition associate professor,engeseth@illinois.eduKent Rausch, Department ofAgricultural and BiologicalEngineering associate professor,krausch@illinois.eduRita Mumm, Department of CropSciences emeritus associateprofessor,ritamumm@illinois.eduCorn is unquestionably a majordietary component for the averageAmerican consumer. However,corn must undergo multiple processingsteps before it can beused as an ingredient in manyfood products. During the productionof breakfast cereals, corn isdry milled, rolled, steamed, andtoasted as it is transformed fromkernels into flaking grits (the majorproduct of dry milling) and ultimatelyinto corn flakes. Becauseeach step can alter nutritionalcontent, the nutrient stability ofcorn throughout food product processingis of interest.Phenolic acids, which act asantioxidants, are one compoundbeing examined in this study.Twelve elite inbreds representativeof the corn germplasm grown inthe U.S. and a subset of their hybridswere analyzed for their phenolicacid content in whole kernelsand flaking grits. From these andsubsequent results, we hope tofind genetic variability for nutritionalcontent that can be used toestablish a plant breeding programto improve corn-basedproducts for human consumption.44AGRONOMY DAY 2013

Department of Crop SciencesEmerging diseases of pumpkin and squash in IllinoisMohammad Babadoost,Department of Crop Sciencesprofessor,babadoos@illinois.edu,217-333-1523In the past three years, threediseases that previously werenonsignificant have occurred inmost Illinois pumpkin and wintersquash fields and caused significantyield losses. These emergingdiseases are anthracnose(caused by Colletotrichumorbiculare), bacterial spot (Xanthomonascucurbitae), andSclerotinia rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum).Anthracnose. Anthracnose isa common disease in Illinois cucumberand watermelon fields,but it was not observed inpumpkin and squash fields untilrecently. C. orbiculare causedfruit infection of both pumpkinand squash (Figure 1). Symptomsdeveloped when fruit approachedmaturity. One or morelesions developed on each fruit.Initially, the lesions were small,circular, sunken orange spots.Gradually, the lesions enlargedand turned black. Concentricrings of reproductive bodies (acervuli)of the causal fungus developedon infected areas.Bacterial spot. Bacterial spotwas more widespread than anthracnoseand Sclerotinia rot. X.cucurbitae infected leaves andfruit, causing small lesions (Figure2). On leaves, the lesionswere small (2 to 4 mm in diameter),angular, and yellow tobeige. The lesions coalescedand caused yellowing of theleaves. The appearance and sizeof fruit lesions varied, dependingon rind maturity and presence ofmoisture. Initial lesions wereslightly sunken and circular (1 toFigure 1. Anthracnose of pumpkin, caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare.Figure 2. Leaf and fruit infection of pumpkin with Xanthomonas cucurbitae.Figure 3. Vine blight and fruit rot of pumpkin, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.3 mm in diameter), with a beigecenter and a dark brown halo.Penetration of bacteria into theflesh, or invasion of infected fruitby the opportunistic organisms,such as Fusarium or Erwiniaspecies, resulted in fruit rot.Sclerotinia rot. S. sclerotiorumcaused fruit rot and vineblight (Figure 3). The mainsymptom on the fruit was watersoakedlesions with nestlikecottony white mycelia and sclerotia,which develop on the stemend of the fruit or where fruitcontacted the soil. Sclerotiawere black and varied from a fewmillimeters to more than a centimeterin diameter. Internalsymptoms of fruit appeared as asoft or wet rot with sclerotia inthe seed cavity.TENT DISPLAYSAGRONOMY DAY 201345

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