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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

118 | PRACTITIONERS

118 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ment of the risk will most probably fail to provide an effective defencefor the State to demonstrate that it fully complied with its obligationsof non-refoulement. 337 In this regard, the European Court of HumanRights has acknowledged that, “owing to the special situation in whichasylum seekers often find themselves, it is frequently necessary to givethem the benefit of the doubt when it comes to assessing the credibilityof their statements and the documents submitted in support thereof.However, when information is presented which gives strong reasons toquestion the veracity of an asylum seeker’s submissions, the individualmust provide a satisfactory explanation for the alleged discrepancies.” 338In order to assess other relevant factors, such as the general situationof the country, the exposure to the risk of a particular group or the inexistenceof State protection, reference will be made to other State partiesreports, judicial decisions, international organisations and agencies,such as the UNHCR, international human rights bodies and reliable NGOreports. 339 The European Court of Human Rights has explained that, inrelying on country information in non-refoulement cases, “considerationmust be given to its source, in particular its independence, reliability andobjectivity. In respect of reports, the authority and reputation of the author,the seriousness of the investigations by means of which they werecompiled, the consistency of their conclusions and their corroboration byother sources are all relevant considerations. [. . .] [C]onsideration must[also] be given to the presence and reporting capacities of the author ofthe material in the country in question.” 340 In their assessment, internationalhuman rights bodies will consider the material put before them bythe parties but will also obtain information proprio motu if necessary. 341337 Rubin Byahuranga v. Denmark, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 334, paras. 11.2–11.4; Hussain Khanv. Canada, CAT, Communication No. 15/1994, Views of 18 November 1994, para. 12.3;Mortesa Aemei v. Switzerland, CAT, op. cit., fn. 327, para. 9.8: “In the present case, therefusal of the competent Swiss authorities to take up the author’s request for review, basedon reasoning of a procedural nature, does not appear justified in the light of article 3 of theConvention.”338 S.A. v. Sweden, ECtHR, Application No. 66523/10, Judgment of 27 June 2013, para. 43;K.A.B. v. Sweden, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 327, para. 70; A.A. and Others v. Sweden, ECtHR,Application No. 14499/09, Judgment of 28 June 2012, para. 73.339 Arkauz Arana v. France, CAT, Communication No. 63/1997, Views of 5 June 2000,para. 11.4; Mutombo v. Switzerland, CAT, Communication No. 13/1993, Views of 27 April1994, para. 9.5. See also, Karoui v. Sweden, CAT, Communication No. 185/2001, Views of25 May 2002, para. 9; Mortesa Aemei v. Switzerland, CAT, op. cit., fn. 327, para. 9.9; PakuKisoki v. Sweden, CAT, Communication No. 41/1996, Views of 8 May 1996, para. 9.5; Pelitv. Azerbaijan, CAT Communication No. 281/2005, Views of 29 May 2007 para. 11; X, Y andZ v. Sweden, CAT, Communication No. 61/1996, Views of 6 May 1998, para. 11.5; Na v.The United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 309, paras. 119, 122; Dbouba v. Turkey, ECtHR,Application No. 15916/09, Judgment of 13 July 2010, paras. 42–43; M.B. and Others v.Turkey, ECtHR, Application No. 36009/08, Judgment of 15 June 2010, paras. 32–33.340 Na v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 309, paras. 120–121.341 Ibid., para. 119. Nnyanzi v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 309, para. 52; Saadi v. Italy,ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 309, paras. 128–130.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 119International jurisprudence on torture has established the principle thatnon-ratification or signature of international instruments protecting againstor preventing the violation of the particular right at risk of violation in thedestination country may reinforce the existence of such risk, when a riskfor the applicant has been established. 342 However, even where domesticlaws exist or the State has ratified international instruments protectinghuman rights this will not be sufficient if reports demonstrate resort to ortolerance of these human rights violations by the national authorities. 343In the case of Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy, the European Court ofHuman Rights ruled that “the existence of domestic laws and the ratificationof international treaties guaranteeing respect for fundamental rightsare not in themselves sufficient to ensure adequate protection against therisk of ill‐treatment where, as in the present case, reliable sources havereported practices resorted to or tolerated by the authorities which aremanifestly contrary to the principles of the Convention”. 344 Furthermore,the Court held that a State “cannot evade its own responsibility by relyingon its obligations arising out of bilateral agreements with [the returnState]. Even if it were to be assumed that those agreements made expressprovision for the return to [the State of return] of migrants intercepted onthe high seas, the Contracting States’ responsibility continues even aftertheir having entered into treaty commitments subsequent to the entry intoforce of the Convention or its Protocols in respect of these States.” 345The fact that the expulsion or asylum case “received wide publicity”might be a corroborating factor of the need to prevent refoulement, ifthere is evidence that this publicity would trigger the anger of Stateagents or private actors, in particular where the applicants have notthemselves been the main means of generating the publicity. 346In the particular case of establishing the risk of the death penalty in thereceiving country, the Human Rights Committee has recalled that “it isnot necessary to prove, as suggested by the State Party, that the author“will” be sentenced to death [. . .] but that there is a “real risk” thatthe death penalty will be imposed on her. It does not accept the StateParty’s apparent assumption that a person would have to be sentencedto death to prove a “real risk” of a violation of the right to life.” 347 It has342 Mutombo v. Switzerland, CAT, op. cit., fn. 339, para. 12.5.343 Muminov v. Russia, ECtHR, Application No. 42502/06, Judgment of 11 December 2008,para. 96; Saadi v. Italy, op. cit., fn. 309 para. 147; M.S.S. v. Belgium and Greece, ECtHR,op. cit., fn. 324, para. 353; Yakubov v. Russia, ECtHR, Application No. 7265/10, Judgmentof 8 November 2011, para. 93.344 Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy, ECtHR, GC, op. cit., fn. 46, para. 128.345 Ibid., para. 129.346 Sadiq Shek Elmi v. Australia, CAT, op. cit., fn. 320, para. 6.8; N. v. Finland, ECtHR, op. cit.,fn. 317, para. 165.347 Kwok Yin Fong v. Australia, CCPR, Communication No. 1442/2005*, Views of 23 November2009; para. 9.6.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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