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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

124 | PRACTITIONERS

124 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6(iv) if the assurances have been issued by the central government ofthe receiving State, whether local authorities can be expected toabide by them [. . .];(v) whether the assurances concerns treatment which is legal or illegalin the receiving State [. . .](vi) whether they have been given by a Contracting State [. . .];(vii) the length and strength of bilateral relations between the sendingand receiving States, including the receiving State’s record inabiding by similar assurances [. . .];(viii) whether compliance with the assurances can be objectively verifiedthrough diplomatic or other monitoring mechanisms, includingproviding unfettered access to the applicant’s lawyers [. . .];(ix) whether there is an effective system of protection against torturein the receiving State, including whether it is willing to cooperatewith international monitoring mechanisms (including internationalhuman rights NGOs), and whether it is willing to investigateallegations of torture and to punish those responsible [. . .];(x) whether the applicant has previously been ill-treated in the receivingState [. . .]; and(xi) whether the reliability of the assurances has been examined bythe domestic courts of the sending/Contracting State [. . .]”. 362To date, no UN treaty body has approved a transfer on the basis of diplomaticassurances against torture, including where elaborate monitoringmechanisms are purported to be in place. 363 However, they have not inprinciple ruled out that such assurances could be sufficient, when it canbe assured that there is a concrete mechanism for monitoring their enforcementand arrangements to assure their effective implementationare present. The Human Rights Committee, in rejecting diplomatic assuranceswith monitoring mechanisms in cases before it, have indicatedthat to be acceptable, a monitoring mechanism would, at a minimum,have to begin to function promptly after the arrival of the concernedperson in the destination State, allow private access to the detaineeby an independent monitor, and allow independent forensic and medi-362 Othman (Abu Qatada) v. the United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 313, para. 189363 In only one case, Attia v. Sweden, CAT, Communication No.199/2002, Views of 24 November2003, the Committee against Torture found diplomatic assurances subject to monitoringto be sufficient to protect against ill-treatment; however in the later related case of Agizav. Sweden, CAT, op. cit., fn. 332, the Committee found that its decision in Attia had beenbased on incomplete information, and that the assurances considered in that case had notin fact prevented the torture of the applicant in Agiza. In Agiza the CAT found that “theprocurement of diplomatic assurances, which, moreover, provided no mechanism for theirenforcement, did not suffice to protect against this manifest risk [of ill-treatment].”

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 125cal expertise, available at any moment. 364 The monitoring undertakenwould have to be, “in fact and in the concerned person’s perception,objective, impartial and sufficiently trustworthy.” 365 Even where suchhigh levels of safeguards do apply, the former UN Special Rapporteur onTorture affirmed that “diplomatic assurances with regard to torture arenothing but attempts to circumvent the absolute prohibition of tortureand refoulement.” 366g) Place of transfer: indirect refoulement and internalrelocationThe principle of non-refoulement applies both to transfers to a Statewhere the person will be at risk (direct refoulement), and to transfers toStates where there is a risk of further transfer to a third country wherethe person will be at risk (indirect refoulement). 367 The Grand Chamberof the European Court of Human Rights, in Hirsi Jamaa and Others v.Italy, clarified that the sending State must “ensure that the intermediarycountry offers sufficient guarantees to prevent the person concernedbeing removed to his country of origin without an assessment ofthe risks faced”. 368 The Court stressed that, including in cases of indirectrefoulement, the State “is not exempt from complying with its obligationsunder Article 3 of the Convention because the applicants failed toask for asylum or to describe the risks faced as a result of the lack ofan asylum system in [the intermediary country of return]. It reiteratesthat the [State] authorities [should ascertain] how the [intermediarycountry] authorities fulfilled their international obligations in relation tothe protection of refugees.” 369In considering whether there is a breach of the principle of non-refoulement,the exact location within a country to which the person is tobe transferred may be important. If a person can be safely relocated inone part of the country, without incurring the risk of violation, the obligationof non-refoulement will not be violated. 370 The federal or unitary364 Alzery v. Sweden, CCPR, Communication No. 1416/2005, Views of 10 November 2006,para. 11.5; Zhakhongir Maksudov and Others v. Kyrgyzstan, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 324,paras. 12.5–12.6; Concluding Observations on Denmark, CCPR, UN Doc. CCPR/C/DNK/CO/5,16 December 2008, para. 10.365 Pelit v. Azerbaijan, CAT, op. cit., fn. 339, para. 11.366 Nowak, Report 2005, op. cit., fn. 359, para. 32.367 CCPR, General Comment No. 31, op. cit., fn. 46, para. 12; General Comment No. 1: Implementationof article 3 of the Convention in the context of article 22, CAT, UN Doc. A/53/44,annex IX, 21 November 1997, para. 2; Hamayak Korban v. Sweden, CAT, CommunicationNo. 88/1997, Views of 16 November 1998, para. 7; Salah Sheekh v. the Netherlands,ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 317, para. 141; M.S.S. v. Belgium and Greece, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 324,para. 342.368 Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy, ECtHR, GC, op. cit., fn. 46, para. 147.369 Ibid., para. 157.370 B.S.S. v. Canada, CAT, op. cit., fn. 330, para. 11.5.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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