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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

126 | PRACTITIONERS

126 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6character of the State of destination and whether the actors from whomthe violation is feared are under the control of the central governmentor of the federated States are points to be taken into consideration.However, the transfer to one safe zone of the country must not in itselfput the person at risk of being subject to such treatment. If the personcannot travel to the area concerned, gain admittance and settle there,without being free from the risk of violations or ending up in a part ofthe country where he could be subject to them, the non-refoulementconcern will persist. 371In the case Sufi and Elmi v. the United Kingdom, the European Court ofHuman Rights established a set of criteria to assess when internal relocationwould comply with the principle of non-refoulement: “as a preconditionof relying on an internal flight alternative, certain guarantees haveto be in place: the person to be expelled must be able to travel to thearea concerned, gain admittance and settle there, failing which an issueunder Article 3 may arise, the more so if in the absence of such guaranteesthere is a possibility of his ending up in a part of the country of originwhere he may be subjected to ill-treatment [. . .]”. 372 In a case of relocationwithin Iraq, the Court underlined that “[o]ne factor possibly weighingagainst the reasonableness of internal relocation is that a person is persecutedby a powerful clan or tribe with influence at governmental level.However, if the clan or tribe in question is not particularly influential, aninternal flight alternative might be reasonable in many cases.” 373Box 10. The Dublin III RegulationThe European Union Regulation 604/2013 (“Dublin IIIRegulation”), which replaced Regulation 343/2003 (“Dublin IIRegulation”), holds that only one Member State may examinethe application for international protection of a third countrynational. The Regulation sets for a number of criteria to beused to identify which Member State is responsible for suchprotection. By way of exception, a State retains the discretionto examine an application lodged with it, regardless of theregulation’s criteria, and, in this case, becomes the State responsiblefor the application. 374371 Salah Sheekh v. the Netherlands, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 317, para. 141.372 Sufi and Elmi v. the United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 327, para. 266; D.N.M. v. Sweden,ECtHR, Application No. 28379/11, Judgment of 27 June 2013, para. 54.373 S.A. v. Sweden, ECtHR, op. cit. fn. 338, para. 53.374 Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 of 26 June 2013 establishing the criteria and mechanisms fordetermining the Member State responsible for examining an application for internationalprotection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a statelessperson (recast), EU, OJ L 180/31, 29.6.2013, Article 17 (EU Dublin Regulation).

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 127The Regulation provides a hierarchy of criteria for determiningthe Member State responsible for the examination of the applicationfor international protection, which must be assessedon the basis of the situation when the application was firstlodged. 375 The hierarchy is the following:1. Family members presence: the State where a familymember of the applicant is already a beneficiary of or anapplicant for international protection is responsible. 3762. State of visa or residence document: the State whichgave the applicant for international protection one ofthese documents is responsible. 3773. Irregular entry: the State where the applicant for internationalprotection entered irregularly is responsibleuntil 12 months after the entry took place. 3784. Five months stay or longer: if the applicant for internationalprotection has lived for at least five months ina State, that State is responsible. If the applicant haslived in more than one Member state, the last Statewhere the applicant lived for more than five months isresponsible. 3795. Entry with visa waiver: the State which allowed entrywith a visa waiver is responsible. 3806. Application in airport’s international transit area: theState which has jurisdiction in the area is responsible. 3817. First State of application: where none of the other criteriaapply, the State in which the application was firstlodged is responsible. 382For unaccompanied minors, the criterion which overrides allothers in determining the Member State responsible for examiningthe application is where a State hosts a sibling or arelative, who is, legally present in that State, that State willbe responsible, provided it is in the best interest of the minor.375 Ibid., Article 7(2).376 Ibid., Article 9 and 10.377 Ibid., Article 12.378 Ibid., Article 13(1).379 Ibid., Article 13(2).380 Ibid., Article 14.381 Ibid., Article 15.382 Ibid., Article 3(2).

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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