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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

128 | PRACTITIONERS

128 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6In the absence of a family member, a sibling or a relative, theMember State responsible is that where the minor has lodgedhis or her application for international protection. 383 The newDublin III Regulation also includes an exception for vulnerablepersons who are dependent on the assistance of theirchild, sibling or parent legally resident in one Member State,in which case that Member State becomes responsible for theapplication for international protection. 384 The exception alsoextends to the case in which “his or her child, sibling or parentlegally resident in one of the Member States is dependent onthe assistance of the applicant”. 385The country responsible must take charge of the applicant andthe asylum application, and take back the applicant for internationalprotection, if he or she is present in another MemberState. 386The European Court of Human Rights held in the case M.S.S. v.Belgium and Greece that States may not avoid their internationalresponsibility under the principle of non-refoulement simplyby relying on the requirements of the Dublin II Regulation.The Court ruled that, whenever an automatic transfer to a thirdcountry in implementation of the Dublin Regulation might riskbreach of the principle of non-refoulement, States must availthemselves of the “sovereignity clause” of then Article 3.2 ofthe Regulation (currently Article 17) in order to avoid breachingtheir obligations under the European Convention of HumanRights. 387 The Court stressed that “[w]hen they apply the DublinRegulation [. . .] the States must make sure that the intermediarycountry’s asylum procedure affords sufficient guaranteesto avoid an asylum seeker being removed, directly or indirectly,to his country of origin without any evaluation of the risks hefaces” 388 of being subjected to a serious violation of human rights.In a line of subsequent cases, the Court of Justice of theEuropean Union has held that pursuant to Article 4 of the EUCharter of Fundamental Rights, prohibiting of inhuman anddegrading treatment “Member States, including the nation-383 Ibid., Article 8.384 Ibid., Article 16.385 Ibid., Article 16.386 Ibid., Article 18 and following.387 M.S.S. v. Belgium and Greece, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 324, paras. 339–340.388 Ibid., para. 342. See also, Mohammed v. Austria, ECtHR, Application No. 2283/12, Judgmentof 6 June 2013, para. 93; Sharifi v. Austria, ECtHR, Application No. 60104/08, Judgment of5 December 2013.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 129al courts, may not transfer an asylum seeker to the ‘MemberState responsible’ [. . .] where they cannot be unaware that systemicdeficiencies in the asylum procedure and in the receptionconditions of asylum seekers in that Member State amount tosubstantial grounds for believing that the asylum seeker wouldface a real risk of being subjected to inhuman or degradingtreatment within the meaning of that provision. Subject to theright itself to examine the application [. . .], the finding that itis impossible to transfer an applicant to another Member State,where that State is identified as the Member State responsiblein accordance with the criteria set out in [the Dublin Regulation],entails that the Member State which should carry out that transfermust continue to examine the criteria set out in that chapterin order to establish whether one of the following criteria enablesanother Member State to be identified as responsible forthe examination of the asylum application. The Member Statein which the asylum seeker is present must ensure that it doesnot worsen a situation where the fundamental rights of that applicanthave been infringed by using a procedure for determiningthe Member State responsible which takes an unreasonablelength of time. If necessary, the first mentioned Member Statemust itself examine the application [. . .]”. 389The new Dublin III Regulation has incorporated this approachin Article 3(2): “Where it is impossible to transfer an applicantto the Member State primarily designated as responsiblebecause there are substantial grounds for believing thatthere are systemic flaws in the asylum procedure and in thereception conditions for applicants in that Member State, resultingin the risk of inhuman or degrading treatment withinthe meaning of Artice 4 of the Charter of Fundamental Rightsof the European Union, the determining Member State shallcontinue to examine the [other] criteria […] in order to establishwhether another Member State can be designated asresponsible. Where the transfer cannot be made pursuant to389 N.S. v. Secretary of State for the Home Department and M.E. and Others v. Refugee ApplicationsCommissioner and Minister of Justice, Equality and Law Reform, CJEU, Cases C-411/10and C-493/10, Judgment of 21 December 2011, ruling, para. 2. See also, Migrationsverket v.Nurije Kastrati and Others, CJEU, Case C-620/10, Judgment of 3 May 2012; BundesrepublikDeutschland v. Kaveh Puid, CJEU, Case C-4/11, Judgment of 14 November 2013; CIMADEand GISTI v. Ministre de l’Interieur, de l’Outre-mer, des Collectivités territoriales e de l’Immigration,CJEU, Case C-179/11, Judgment of 27 September 2012; K v. Bundesasylamt,CJEU, Case C-245/11, Judgment of 6 November 2012; Zuheyr Frayeh Halaf v. Darzhavnaagentsia za bezhantsite pri Ministerskia savet, CJEU, Case C-528/11, Judgment of 30 May2013; MA, BT and DA v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, CJEU, Case C-648/11,Judgment of 6 June 2013; Shamso Abdullahi v. Bundesasylamt, CJEU, Case C-394/12, Judgmentof 10 December 2013.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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