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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

132 | PRACTITIONERS

132 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6through practices linked to the imposition of the death penalty, whichwill be addressed below.Within the threshold of torture or other cruel, inhuman or degradingtreatment or punishment fall not only acts that cause severe physicalpain or actual bodily injury but also acts that cause intense mental suffering,fear, anguish or feelings of inferiority to the victims, or humiliateor debase them. 398 Whether the threshold for conduct that amounts tosuch treatment or punishment has been passed may depend on thesex, age or health of the victim. 399 In addition to physical ill-treatmentduring arrest or interrogation, 400 examples of acts which internationalhuman rights mechanisms have found to amount to such treatmentinclude:• corporal punishment 401 or other cruel punishment 402 whether imposedas a result of a judicial order or not;• acts of sexual violence, including but not limited to rape; 403• prolonged incommunicado detention; 404• harmful practices against women and girls such as female genitalmutilation; 405• unnecessarily prolonged or repeated solitary confinement; 406• very poor prison conditions or prison overcrowding, or failure toprovide adequate medical attention in detention, having regard398 Raninen v. Finland, ECtHR, Case No. 52/1996/771/972, Judgment of 16 December 1997,para. 167; M.S.S. v. Belgium and Greece, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 324, para. 219; CCPR, GeneralComment No. 20, op. cit., fn. 394, para. 5.399 Saadi v. Italy, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 309, para. 134.400 Ribitsch v. Austria, ECtHR, Application No. 18896/91, Judgment of 4 December 1995, para. 38.401 CCPR, General Comment No. 20, op. cit., fn. 394, para. 5; Tyrer v. United Kingdom, ECtHR,Application No. 5856/72, Judgment of 25 April 1978; Costello-Roberts v. United Kingdom,ECtHR, Application No. 13134/87, Judgment of 25 March 1993.402 Ryabikin v. Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 356, para. 121; Jabari v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit.,fn. 116, paras. 41–42.403 C.T. and K.M. v. Sweden, CAT, op. cit., fn. 322, para. 7.5; M.C. v. Bulgaria, ECtHR, ApplicationNo. 39272/98, Judgment of 4 December 2003; Aydin v. Turkey, ECtHR, CaseNo. 57/1996/676/866, Judgment of 25 September 1997, paras. 83–86.404 Concluding Observations on USA, CAT, op. cit., fn. 46, para. 17; General Comment No. 20,CCPR, op. cit., fn. 394, para. 6; Theo Van Boven, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, Reporton the Special Rappoerteur’s visit to Spain, UN Doc. E/CN.4/2004/56/Add.2, 6 February2004, para. 34.405 Kaba and Kaba v. Canada, CCPR, Communication No. 1465/2006, Views of 25 March 2010,para. 10.1.406 CCPR, General Comment No. 20, op. cit., fn. 394, para. 6; Kuznetsov v. Ukraine, ECtHR,Application No. 39042/97, Judgment of 29 April 2003; R. v. Denmark, ECommHR, Plenary,Application No. 10263/83, Admissibility Decision, 11 March 1985; McFeeley v. United Kingdom,ECommHR, Plenary, Application No. 8317/78, Admissibility Decision, 15 May 1980.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 133to the cumulative effects of the conditions, and to the length ofdetention (see, further, Chapter 4 on detention); 407• repeated or unnecessarily intrusive strip searches; 408• domestic violence; 409• the most severe forms of race discrimination. 410• time spent on “death row” awaiting execution (see below).This is by no means an exhaustive list. For example, the European Courtof Human Rights has held in the landmark case D v. United Kingdomthat the expulsion of a non-national diagnosed in the terminal phaseof AIDS would have amounted to inhuman treatment, as he would nothave had access to the medical and palliative treatment available in theUK in the receiving country. 411 Nevertheless, the Court has cautionedthat such cases should be viewed as exceptional. The principle “mustapply in relation to the expulsion of any person afflicted with any serious,naturally occurring physical or mental illness which may cause suffering,pain and reduced life expectancy and require specialised medicaltreatment which may not be so readily available in the applicant’scountry of origin or which may be available only at substantial cost.” 412407 Peers v. Greece, ECtHR, Application No. 28524/95, Judgment of 19 April 2001, paras. 67–75;Ilascu and Others v. Russia and Moldova, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 48787/99, Judgmentof 8 July 2004; M.S.S. v. Belgium and Greece, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 324, paras. 366–368;Conteris v. Uruguay, CCPR, Communication No. 139/1983, Views of 17 July 1985.408 Van der Ven v. the Netherlands, ECtHR, Application No 50901/99, Judgment of 4 February2003; Valasinas v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Application No. 44558/98, Judgment of 24 July 2001.409 Z and Others v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 29392/95, Judgment of 10 May2001.410 Cyprus v. Turkey, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 25781/94, Judgment of 10 May 2001; EastAfrican Asians v. United Kingdom, ECommHR, Applications nos 4403/70-4419/70 and others,Report of 14 December 1973.411 D. v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, Application No. 30240/96, Judgment of 2 May 1997, paras. 49–54.412 N. v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 26565/05, Judgment of 27 May 2008, para.45; Ahorugeze v. Sweden, ECtHR, op. cit. fn. 295, paras. 88–95: Nacic and Others v. Sweden,ECtHR, Application No. 16567/10, Judgment of 15 May 2012, paras. 49–56, S.H.H. v. theUnited Kingdom, ECtHR, Application No. 60367/10, Judgment of 29 January 2013 (where acase of disability of a returnee to Afghanistan did not meet the threshold of Article 3 ECHR).In Yoh-Ekale Mwanje v. Belgium, ECtHR, Application No. 10486/10, 20 December 2011,paras. 82–86, a majority of the judges appended a partially concurring opinion stating that“un seuil de gravité aussi extrême—être quasi-mourant—est difficilement compatible avec lalettre et l’esprit de l’article 3, un droit absolu qui fait partie des droits les plus fondamentauxde la Convention et qui concerne l’intégrité et la dignité de la personne. A cet égard, la différenceentre une personne qui est sur son lit de mort ou dont on sait qu’elle est condamnéeà bref délai nous paraît infime en termes d’humanité. Nous espérons que la Cour puisse unjour revoir sa jurisprudence sur ce point”, partially concurring opinion, para. 6. See also,CMW, General Comment No. 2, op. cit., fn. 2, para. 50: “In the view of the Committee, thisprinciple covers the risk of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,including inhumane and degrading conditions of detention for migrants or lack of necessarymedical treatment in the country of return, as well as the risk to the right to life.”

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