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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

140 | PRACTITIONERS

140 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6justice. It would be unreasonable if that applicant could not then rely onArticle 5 to prevent his extradition”. 449More specifically, the Court indicated that “a Contracting State would bein violation of Article 5 if it removed an applicant to a State where heor she was at real risk of a flagrant breach of that Article. However, aswith Article 6, a high threshold must apply”. 450g) Freedom of religion or beliefThe expulsion of a person to a country where he or she would be at riskof a flagrant denial of his or her freedom of religion is also prohibited.Freedom of religion or belief guarantees both a right to hold a religious—orequivalent non-religious belief—and a freedom to manifest one’s religionor belief not only in community with other people, in public and withinthe circle of fellow believers, but also alone and in private. 451 However,the right to manifest one’s religion or belief, unlike the right to hold abelief or religion, is not an absolute one, and can be restricted, in compliancewith the principles of legality, necessity and proportionality, only“in the interests of public safety, for the protection of public order, healthor morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others”. 452The European Court of Human Rights has stated that not all cases inwhich the freedom to manifest one’s religion would not be respectedin the receiving country can fall under the protection of the non-refoulementprinciple. The Court has found two situations in which thisprotection would apply:• where there is a substantiated claim that they will either sufferpersecution for, inter alia, religious reasons or will be at risk ofdeath or serious ill-treatment, and possibly flagrant denial of a fairtrial or arbitrary detention, because of their religious affiliation;• in exceptional circumstances, where there was a real risk of flagrantviolation of freedom of religion or belief in the receivingState. The Court has, however, noted that it would be difficult tothink of a case in which this situation would not also amount tonon-refoulement for reasons of torture or inhuman or degradingtreatment or punishment. 453449 Othman (Abu Qatada) v. the United Kingdom, op. cit., fn. 313, para. 232.450 Ibid., para. 233. In the case at stake, fifty days’ detention fell “short of the length of detentionrequired for a flagrant breach of Article 5”, para. 235451 Z and T v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 314, The Law; Kokkinakis v. Greece, ECtHR,Application No. 14307/88, Judgment of 25 May 1993, p. 17, para. 31.452 Article 9.2 ECHR; Article 18.3 ICCPR; Article 12.3 ACHR; Article 8 ACHPR allows for restrictionson the basis of law and order; Article 30.2 ArCHR.453 Z and T v. United Kingdom, EctHR, op. cit., fn. 314.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 141II. Expulsion as a violation of rights enjoyed inthe sending StateIn addition to non-refoulement, human rights law imposes a secondtype of limitation on the State’s ability to transfer non-nationals: wherethe removal from the country of refuge would in itself, irrespective ofwhere the individual is sent, represent an unjustifiable interference withcertain human rights. Although a range of rights could in principle beaffected by a removal, the principle has to date primarily been appliedby international human rights authorities in relation to the right to respectfor family life, the right to respect for private life, 454 and to theright to freedom of religion or belief. In relation to those rights, an interferencewith rights resulting from a removal will be considered to bejustified where it is prescribed by law, necessary and proportionate toa legitimate aim.1. The right to respect for private and family lifeThe right to respect for private and family life is enshrined in a numberof human rights treaties. 455 This right, unlike the prohibition of tortureand cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, can be subjectto derogation in times of emergency and it allows for restrictionsto its enjoyment where they are in accordance with the law; pursue alegitimate aim, are necessary in a democratic society, are proportionateto the aim pursued, and are non-discriminatory.The meaning of “family” for the purposes of the right to respect for familylife is a broad one, which has been progressively extended by thejurisprudence of international courts and tribunals, reflecting changingsocial values, and may continue to develop in the future. The definitionis set out in detail in Chapter 1, Section 3. Even where a relationshipis found not to amount to family life, however, the right to respect forprivate life may apply to prevent the removal of a migrant from thejurisdiction. The right to respect for private life extends to protectionof personal and social relationships. The European Court has notedthat it protects “the right to establish and develop relationships withother human beings and the outside world [. . .] and can sometimesembrace aspects of an individual’s social identity [and that] it must beaccepted that the totality of social ties between settled migrants andthe community in which they are living constitute part of the concept of454 Slivenko v. Latvia, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 48321/99, Judgment of 9 October 2003,para. 95; Üner v. the Netherlands, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 46410/99, Judgment of18 October 2006, para. 59; Onur v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 195, para. 46; A.W.Khan v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 198, para. 31.455 Articles 17 and 23 ICCPR; Article 9 CRC; Article 8 ECHR; Article 11 ACHR; Article V ADRDM;Article 18 ACHPR; Articles 21 and 33 ArCHR.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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