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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

142 | PRACTITIONERS

142 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6“private life” within the meaning of Article 8.” 456 Therefore, expulsionof a settled migrant, even where he or she has not developed a familylife in the jurisdiction, may constitute an interference with his or herprivate life.a) Expulsion as interference to the right to respect for familyand private lifeAs noted above, expulsion, as an interference with the right to privateand family life, must be in accordance with the law. This requiresthat it must:• have a basis in domestic law;• be accessible to the persons concerned;• be sufficiently precise to enable those concerned to foresee, to adegree that is reasonable and if necessary with appropriate advice—theconsequences of their actions. 457The expulsion must also pursue a legitimate aim. The maintenanceand enforcement of immigration control is considered by itself to constitutea legitimate aim for restrictions to the rights of family and privatelife, 458 as are reasons of national security and public order. Merelyclaiming that these aims are pursued is not sufficient, however: theaction must be shown to truly advance the aim and be necessary toreach it. 459The decision to expel must also be necessary in a democratic society,which requires that it be justified by a pressing social need,and proportionate to the aim pursued. The requirement of proportionalitymeans that there must be relevant and sufficient reasons forthe measure, that no less restrictive measure is feasible; that adequatesafeguards against abuse should be in place; and that the measureshould be imposed by way of a fair procedure. The Human RightsCommittee has found that “in cases where one part of a family mustleave the territory of the State Party while the other part would be entitledto remain, the relevant criteria for assessing whether or not thespecific interference with family life can be objectively justified mustbe considered, on the one hand, in light of the significance of the StateParty’s reasons for the removal of the person concerned and, on the456 Üner v. the Netherlands, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 454, para. 59; Onur v. United Kingdom, ECtHR,op. cit., fn. 196, para. 46; A.W. Khan v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 198, para. 31;Vasquez v. Switzerland, ECtHR, Application No. 1785/08, Judgment of 26 November 2013,para. 37.457 Onur v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 196, para. 48.458 Nnyanzi v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 309, para. 76.459 Abdulaziz, Cabales and Balkandali v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 43, para. 78.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 143other, the degree of hardship the family and its members would encounteras a consequence of such removal.” 460In this regard, for example, conviction for drug-related offences orfor offences carrying a considerable prison sentence will more oftenincline the Committee to find expulsions reasonable, even when thatwould cause considerable hardship for the applicant’s family, in particularwhen the rest of the family did not join the applicant in the communicationbefore the Committee. 461 However, the decision would bedisproportionate if it was “de facto impossible [. . .] to continue familylife” outside of the expelling country. 462 In addition, the European Courtof Human Rights has held that, when the children are remaining in theexpelling country and the expellee has a proven family relationship withthem, the children’s best interest must be taken into account. 463 Finally,it is important to stress that an expulsion following criminal convictiondoes not run afoul of the principle of prohibition of double jeopardy, asit is to be considered a measure which is preventive rather than punitivein nature. 464In cases where the person is to be expelled as a consequence of committinga criminal offence, the European Court of Human Rights hasestablished guiding criteria to be considered in evaluating whether ameasure of expulsion that interferes with private or family life, is necessaryin a democratic society and proportionate to the legitimate aimpursued: 4651. the nature and seriousness of the offence committed by the applicant;2. the length of the applicant’s stay in the country from which he orshe is to be expelled;460 Rubin Byahuranga v. Denmark, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 334, para. 11.7; Madafferi and Madafferi v.Australia, CCPR, Communication No. 1011/2001, Views of 26 August 2004, para. 9.8; Omojudiv. United Kingdom, ECtHR, Application No.1820/08, Judgment of 24 November 2009.461 Ibid., para. 11.8.462 Amrollahi v. Denmark, ECtHR, Application No. 56811/00, Judgment of 11 July 2002, paras.36–44; Sezen v. the Netherlands, ECtHR, Application No. 50252/99, Judgment of 31 January2006; Jama Warsame v. Canada, CCPR, Communication No. 1959/2010, Views of 21 July2011, para. 8.10.463 Udeh v. Switzerland, ECtHR, Application No. 12020/09, Judgment of 16 April 2013, paras.52–54.464 Üner v. the Netherlands, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 454, paras. 54–58; Vasquez v. Switzerland,ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 456, para. 50 (the duration of the exclusion from the territory is part ofthe proportionality assessment of the measure).465 Boultif v. Switzerland, ECtHR, Application No. 54273/00, Judgment of 2 August 2001, para.48. See also, Hamidovic v. Italy, ECtHR, Application No. 31956/05, Judgment of 4 December2012. “[T]he factors to be examined in order to assess the proportionality of the deportationmeasure are the same regardless of whether family or private life is engaged”, A.A. v.the United Kingdom, ECtHR, Application No. 8000/08, Judgment of 20 September 2011,para. 49.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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