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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

146 | PRACTITIONERS

146 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Furthermore, the expulsion must be ordered for one of the aims listedin the human rights treaty and must be necessary and proportionate tothat aim. Under the ICCPR, ECHR and ACHR, legitimate aims are limitedto the interests of public safety, the protection of public order, healthor morals, and the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. 476No human rights treaty allows for a restriction on the right to freedomof religion or belief or of manifesting one’s religion or belief on groundsof national security. 477In a limited but significant line of case-law, the European Court of HumanRights and the African Commission have also held that when someoneis prevented from entering a country or expelled merely on grounds ofpast expressed opinions, and as a result is impaired in imparting informationand ideas within that country, this may violate his or her rightto freedom of expression. 478 In one case, the African Commission foundan expulsion based on grounds of opinion to be a “flagrant violation”of the freedom of expression. 479 The same principles that apply to theright to freedom of religion and belief also apply in this situation, exceptthat the right to freedom of expression can be restricted on grounds ofnational security and public order.3. Expulsion and the “effectiveness” of the right to aremedyWidely recognised under general principles of law and by major humanrights treaties, where an individual’s rights have allegedly been violated,he or she has the right to an effective remedy at the national level. 480The remedy’s purpose is to “enforce the substance of the [human rightstreaty] rights and freedoms in whatever form they might happen to476 Article 9.2 ECHR; Article 18.3 ICCPR; Article 12.3 ACHR; Article 8 ACHPR allows for restrictionson the basis of law and order; Article 30.2 ArCHR.477 Nolan and K. v. Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 472, para. 73.478 Cox v. Turkey, ECtHR, Application No. 2933/03, Judgment of 20 May 2010; Women onWaves and Others v. Portugal, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 46; and, Piermont v. France, ECtHR,Applications No. 15773/89 and 15774/89, Judgment of 27 April 1995; Good v. Republic ofBotswana, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 470, p. 66, paras. 196–200.479 Good v. Republic of Botswana, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 470, p. 66, paras. 196–200.480 Article 8 UDHR, Article 2.3 ICCPR, Article 8.2 CPED, Article 83 ICRMW, Article 13 ECHR,Article 25 ACHR, Article 25 Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Women in Africa, Article23 ArCHR. See further, UN Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy andReparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and SeriousViolations of International Humanitarian Law, adopted by the Commission on Human Rights,Resolution E/CN.4/RES/2005/35 of 19 April 2005 and by the General Assembly ResolutionA/RES/60/147 of 16 December 2005 by consensus. A thorough analysis of the right to aremedy is to be found in International Commission of Jurists, The Right to a Remedy and toReparation for Gross Human Rights Violations—A Practitioners’ Guide, Geneva, December2006 (ICJ Practitioners’ Guide No. 2).

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 147be secured in the domestic legal order”. 481 International human rightsbodies agree that the remedy must be prompt, effective, accessible,impartial and independent, must be enforceable, and lead to cessationof or reparation for the human rights violation concerned. 482 In certaincases, the remedy must be provided by a judicial body, 483 but, even ifit is not, it must fulfil the requirements of effectiveness and independence,set out above. The remedy must be effective in practice as wellas in law, and must not be unjustifiably hindered by the acts of Stateauthorities. 484The right to a remedy has procedural implications for the expulsionprocess—addressed in the next Chapter. In addition, however, wherea migrant, who is alleged to have suffered human rights violations inthe country in which he or she is resident as a non-national, is to beexpelled, such expulsion or the threat of it may hinder his or her accessto a remedy for that human rights violation. A migrant might, for example,have been subject to violations of his or her labour rights, right toeducation or other economic, social or cultural rights. They might havebeen subject to ill-treatment, forced labour or situations of arbitrarydeprivation of liberty, as may be the case for example for domesticworkers. 485 The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has stressed theimportance of the right to a remedy for undocumented migrant workers,noting that it is impermissible to take measures “denying them thepossibility of filing a complaint about violations of their rights before thecompetent authority.” 486The ICRMW establishes a general principle that “expulsion from theState of employment shall not in itself prejudice any rights of a migrantworker or a member of his or her family acquired in accordance withthe law of that State, including the right to receive wages and otherentitlements due to him or her”. 487 However, such provision is limited tomigrant workers and members of the family and, moreover, speaks onlyof rights “acquired under the law of the State”, narrowing the scope ofthe protection. The Committee on Migrant Workers has held that, wherea migrant worker is to be expelled, “States parties should, whenever481 Al-Nashif v. Bulgaria, ECtHR, Application No. 50963/99, Judgment of 20 June 2002, para. 132.See also, Omkarananada and the Divine Light Zentrum v. Switzerland, ECommHR, op. cit.,fn. 474, p. 118, para. 9.482 See, generally, ICJ, Practitioners’ Guide No. 2, op. cit., fn. 480, pp. 46–54.483 Ibid., pp. 49–54.484 Muminov v. Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 343, para. 100; Isakov v. Russia, ECtHR, op. cit.,fn. 324, para. 136; Yuldashev v. Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 324, paras. 110–111; Garayev v.Azerbaijan, ECtHR, Application No. 53688/08, Judgment of 10 June 2010, paras. 82 and 84.485 See, General Comment No. 1 on migrant domestic workers, CMW, UN Doc. CMW/C/GC/1,23 February 2011, para. 17.486 Advisory Opinion on Undocumented Migrants, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 33, para. 170.487 Article 22.9 ICRMW. See, on labour rights, Article 25.3 ICRMW.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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