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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

158 | PRACTITIONERS

158 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Box 11. Automatic prohibitions on leaving one’scountryThe right to leave any country, including one’s own, is enshrinedin Article 12.2 ICCPR, Article 2.2 of Protocol 2 ECHR,Article 22.2 ACHR, Article 12.2 of the African Charter. It is notan absolute right as, it can be limited for the pursuance of alegitimate aim and only by measures which are prescribed bylaw, necessary and proportionate.A particular reflection of this human right—which is rarelyclaimed before international human rights bodies—is tobe found in the judgment of the European Court of HumanRights in the case Stamose v. Bulgaria. The case concerned aBulgarian citizen whose passport was seized by the Bulgarianauthorities and who was subject to a travel ban of two yearsfor breach of the immigration laws of the USA. The scope ofthis measure was to “discourage and prevent breaches of theimmigration laws of other States, and thus reduce the likelihoodof those States refusing other Bulgarian nationals entryto their territory, or toughening or refusing to relax their visaregime in respect of Bulgarian nationals”. 531 The law on whichthe measure was based was “enacted and subsequently tightened[. . .] as part of a package of measures designed to allaythe fears of, amongst others, the then Member States of theEuropean Union in respect of illegal emigration from Bulgaria,and that it played a part in the Union’s decision in March 2001to exempt Bulgarian nationals from a visa requirement forshort‐term stays [. . .].” 532The European Court held that the fact that the prohibition toleave his country derived from a EU agreement did not foreclosethe examination of its compliance with the EuropeanConvention on Human Rights. On the matter of the dispute,the Court found it “quite draconian for the Bulgarian State—which could not be regarded as directly affected by the applicant’sinfringement—to have also prevented him from travellingto any other foreign country for a period of two years”. 533It finally ruled that, “[a]lthough the Court might be preparedto accept that a prohibition on leaving one’s own country imposedin relation to breaches of the immigration laws of an-531 Stamose v. Bulgaria, ECtHR, Application No. 29713/05, Judgment of 27 November 2012,para. 32.532 Ibid., para. 36.533 Ibid., para. 34.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 159other State may in certain compelling situations be regardedas justified, it does not consider that the automatic impositionof such a measure without any regard to the individual circumstancesof the person concerned may be characterised asnecessary in a democratic society”. 5342. Expulsion procedures and the right to fair trialUnlike the Human Rights Committee and the European Court of HumanRights, which, as noted, have rejected the application of the rightto a fair hearing in expulsion cases, 535 one regional court, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, and two regional human rights bodies,the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the AfricanCommission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, have recognised that fairtrial guarantees apply in expulsion proceedings. 536In the Inter-American system, the Inter-American Court and the Inter-American Commission have determined that Article 8 (right to a fairtrial) and Article 25 (right to judicial protection) ACHR and Article XVIII(right to a fair trial) of the American Declaration apply also to expulsionand deportation proceedings. 537 The Commission has clarified that,while the application of the right to a fair trial to these proceedings“may not require the presence of all the guarantees required for a fairtrial in the criminal sphere, a minimum threshold of due process guaranteesshould be provided.” 538 In particular, the following guaranteeshave been affirmed by these bodies:534 Ibid., para. 36.535 See, fn. 503 and 504 under section II.1.536 Advisory Opinion on Undocumented Migrants, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 33, paras. 124–127; VélezLoor v. Panama, IACtHR, Series C No. 218, Judgment of 23 November 2010, para. 146;Riebe Star and Others v. Mexico, IACHR, Case 11.160, Report No. 49/99, 13 April 1999,Merits, 13 April 1999, para. 71. See also, Habal and son v. Argentina, IACHR, Case 11.691,Report No. 64/08, Merits, 25 July 2008, para. 53; IACHR, Report on Terrorism and HumanRights, OAS Doc. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.116, Doc. 5 rev. 1 corr., 22 October 2002, paras. 401 and409. For the African system see, OMCT and Others v. Rwanda, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 65,pp. 49, 52; Rencontre Africaine pour la Defence des Droits de l’Homme (RADDH) v. Zambia,ACommHPR, Communication No. 71/92, 20 th Ordinary Session, October 1996, p. 60,para. 29; UIADH and Others v. Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 43, paras. 19–20; AmnestyInternational v. Zambia, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 469, paras. 38, 42 and 53; IHRDA v.Republic of Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, para. 59; ZLHR and IHRD v. Republic ofZimbabwe, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, paras. 106–109; Good v. Republic of Botswana,ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 470, paras. 161–163, 179–180.537 Advisory Opinion on Undocumented Migrants, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 33, paras. 124–127;Nadege Dorzema et al. v. Dominican Republic, IACtHR, Judgment of 24 October 2012,para. 159; IACHR, Report on Terrorism and Human Rights, op. cit., fn. 536, paras. 398–403;Habal and son v. Argentina, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 54; Riebe Star and Others v.Mexico, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 71; John Doe et al. v. Canada, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 117.538 IACHR, Report on Terrorism and Human Rights, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 403.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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