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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

160 | PRACTITIONERS

160 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6• the right to a public hearing; 539• the right to be given an adequate opportunity to exercise the rightof defense; 540• the right to be assisted by a lawyer and have access to free legalaid; 541• the right to sufficient time to ascertain the charge against them; 542• the right to reasonable time in which to prepare and formalise aresponse, and to seek and adduce responding evidence; 543• the right to receive prior communication of the reasons for expulsion;544• the right to appeal a decision before a superior judge or court; 545• the right to prior notification. 546The Inter-American Commission has also held that the failure to respectof the right to a fair trial; the right to due legal process; and the right toeffective legal counsel constitute violations of Article 22.6 ACHR whichstates that “[a]n alien lawfully in the territory of a State Party to thisConvention may be expelled from it only pursuant to a decision reachedin accordance with law.” 547The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights has found applicablethe right to a fair trial (Article 7 ACHPR), 548 and the right to receiveinformation (Article 9.1 ACHPR) 549 to expulsion procedures. Underthese provisions, the Commission has determined that non-nationals,regardless of their status, have the right to challenge an expulsion deci-539 Ibid., para. 403; Riebe Star and Others v. Mexico, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 71.540 Ibid., para. 403.541 Vélez Loor v. Panama, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 146; Nadege Dorzema et al. v. DominicanRepublic, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 537, para. 164; IACHR, Report on Terrorism and HumanRights, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 403; Riebe Star and Others v. Mexico, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 536,para. 71.542 IACHR, Report on Terrorism and Human Rights, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 403; Riebe Star andOthers v. Mexico, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 71.543 Ibid., para. 403; Riebe Star and Others v. Mexico, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 71.544 Habal and son v. Argentina, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 55.545 Ibid., para. 55.546 Ibid., para. 55.547 Article 22.6 ACHR. See, Habal and son v. Argentina, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 58; RiebeStar and Others v. Mexico, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 107.548 OMCT and Others v. Rwanda, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 65, pp. 49, 52; RADDH v. Zambia,ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 536, p. 60, para. 29; UIADH and Others v. Angola, ACommHPR, op.cit., fn. 43, paras. 19–20; Amnesty International v. Zambia, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 469,paras. 46 and 61; IHRDA v. Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, para. 59.549 Amnesty International v. Zambia, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 469, para. 41; Good v. Republicof Botswana, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 470, paras. 194–195.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 161sion before a national judicial authority, 550 and the right to be providedwith the reasons for deportation. 551The African Commission has held that, when the government expels acitizen or a non-national on grounds of national security, it must bringevidence against the person before the courts. The Commission stressedthat the right to be informed of the reasons for expulsion is an inherentpart of the right to a fair trial and may not be abrogated in times ofemergency. It found that failure to provide reasons for expulsion violatesthe right to fair trial (Article 7), to an independent judiciary (Article 26)and of the right to access to information (Article 9) of the African Charter.The Commission warned that an expulsion without providing reasons forexpulsion would constitute a “mockery of justice and the rule of law”. 552The African Commission has established that expelling an individualwithout providing for the opportunity to plead before the competentnational courts also constitutes a violation of Article 12.4 of the AfricanCharter, stating that “[a] non-national legally admitted in a territory ofa State Party to the present Charter, may only be expelled from it byvirtue of a decision taken in accordance with the law.” 553Both the Inter-American and the African Commission have establishedthat a lack or denial of access to a judicial remedy, a failure to implementjudicial decisions against expulsion, or a lack of due processguarantees violate not only the right to a fair trial, but also the right toexpulsion proceedings in accordance with the law (Articles 22 ACHR and12.4 ACHPR), 554 the right to an independent judiciary in the African system(Article 26 ACHRP), 555 and, in the case of the Inter-American system,the right to an effective judicial remedy (Article 25 ACHR). 556 They550 OMCT and Others v. Rwanda, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 65, pp. 49, 52; Amnesty Internationalv. Zambia, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 469, p. 76, paras. 46 and 61; IHRDA v. Angola,ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, para. 59; RADDH v. Zambia, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 536,para. 29; UIADH and Others v. Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 43, paras. 19–20.551 Amnesty International v. Zambia, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 469, para. 41; Good v. Republicof Botswana, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 470, paras. 194–195.552 Good v. Republic of Botswana, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 470, paras. 193, 194 and 177.553 Article 12.4 ACHPR. See, UIADH and Others v. Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 43, paras. 14and 20; IHRDA v. Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, paras. 63–65; ZLHR and Othersv. Zimbabwe, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, para. 114; Good v. Republic of Botswana,ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 470, para. 205.554 IHRDA v. Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, paras. 63–65; ZLHR and Others v. Zimbabwe,ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, para. 114. For the Inter-American system, Habal andson v. Argentina, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 58; IACHR, Report on Terrorism and HumanRights, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 402.555 ZLHR and Others v. Zimbabwe, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, paras. 118–120; Good v. Republicof Botswana, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 470, paras. 179–180.556 IACHR, “Situations of Haitians in the Dominican Republic”, in Annual Report 1991, OASDoc. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.81,Doc. 6 rev. 1, Chapter V,14 February 1992(IACHR, Situations ofHaitians), Chapter V; Habal and son v. Argentina, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 53.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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