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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

162 | PRACTITIONERS

162 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6have held that fair trial guarantees and the right of access to courts tovindicate rights cannot be restricted in expulsion proceedings even incases of national security, public order or public health. 557Box 12. Deportation and forcible transfer as a crimeunder international lawIn situations of armed conflict, international humanitarian lawprohibits the deportation or forcible transfer by an OccupyingPower, whether a State or an armed group, of the civilian populationof an occupied territory, unless the security of the populationor imperative military reasons so demand. This rule appliesto all conflicts whether of an international or a non-internationalcharacter, 558 and is a norm of customary international law. 559The Geneva Conventions characterise the infringement of thisobligation as a grave breach of the Conventions. 560Deportation or forcible transfer of civilians for reasons notpermitted by international law also constitutes a crime againsthumanity, when committed as a part of a widespread or systematicattack against any civilian population, and a war crime,when committed in the context of an international or non-internationalarmed conflict. 561The definition of deportation or forcible transfer of population intreaty law is provided by the Rome Statute of the InternationalCriminal Court, which refers to it as the “forced displacement ofthe persons concerned by expulsion or other coercive acts from557 IHRDA v. Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, para. 84. See, mutatis mutandis, Habeascorpus in emergency situations, IACtHR, Advisory Opinion OC-8/87, 30 January 1987; Goodv. Republic of Botswana, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 470, paras. 161–163, 179–180.558 Article 49, Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva,12 August 1949 (IV Geneva Convention); Article 17, Protocol Additional to the GenevaConventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-InternationalArmed Conflicts (Protocol II), 8 June 1977 (APII to the Geneva Conventions).559 Rule 129, Customary International Humanitarian Law, Jean-Marie Henckaerts and LouiseDoswald-Beck, ICRC and Cambridge University Press, Vol I (Rules), 2009.560 Article 147, IV Geneva Convention; Article 85(4)(a), Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventionsof 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International ArmedConflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977 (API to the Geneva Conventions).561 Articles 2(g) and 5(d), Updated Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the formerYugoslavia, September 2009 (ICTY Statute); Article 3(d), Statute of the International CriminalTribunal for Rwanda, 31 January 2010 (ICTR Statute); Articles 7.1(d), 7.2(d), 8.2(a)(vii),8.2(b)(viii) and 8.2(e)(viii), Rome Statute. See also, Article 6(c), Charter of the InternationalMilitary Tribunal (Nuremberg Charter); Article 5(c), Charter of the International Military Tribunalfor the Far East; Principle VI(b) (War Crimes) and (c) (Crimes against Humanity), “InternationalLaw Commission’s Principles of International Law Recognised in the Charter of theNuremberg Tribunal and in the Judgment of the Tribunal”, ILC, in Yearbook of the InternationalLaw Commission, 1950, vol. II, para. 97.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 163the area in which they are lawfully present, without groundspermitted under international law”. 562 The definition is providedin the context of crimes against humanity. The requirementof being “lawfully present” does not encompass deportation orforcible transfer committed as a war crime, as it appears clearlyfrom the ICC Elements of Crimes. 563 Deportation or forcibletransfer have also been held by the ICTY to constitute a crimeof persecution, if committed with a discriminatory intent. 5643. Procedural rights and collective expulsionsCollective expulsion is prohibited in an absolute way by all major humanrights treaties and this prohibition is considered to have assumedthe status of customary international law 565 therefore binding all States,regardless of their being party to a treaty expressing such prohibition.Treaty prohibitions on collective expulsions are contained in Article 4 ofProtocol 4 to the ECHR, 566 Article 12.5 of the African Charter, Article 22.9ACHR, Article 26.2 of the Arab Charter on Human Rights, and Article 22.1ICRMW. Although no express ICCPR provision prohibits collective expulsions,the Human Rights Committee has been clear that “laws or decisionsproviding for collective or mass expulsions” would entail a violationof Article 13 ICCPR. 567 Furthermore, the Committee has affirmed in itsGeneral Comment No. 29 that deportation and forcible transfer of populationwithout grounds permitted under international law, as defined bythe Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (see, Box No. 11)is a measure which cannot be adopted even under state of emergencyand that no derogation from a Covenant right, even if it is permitted perse, can justify implementation of such measures. 568 The Committee forthe Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) found thatcollective expulsions violate Article 5(a) and 6 of the ICERD. 569562 Article 7.2(d), Rome Statute.563 See, Articles 7.1(d), 8.2(a)(vii), 8.2(b)(viii), 8.2(e)(viii) of the Elements of Crimes, ICC, Doc.ICC-ASP/1/3 (part II-B), adopted on 9 September 2002. See also, Prosecutor v. Milomir Stakic,ICTY, Appeal Chamber Judgment, Case No. IT-97-24-A, 22 March 2006, paras. 276–300and 317; and, Prosecutor v. Milorad Krnojelac, ICTY, Appeal Chamber Judgment, CaseNo. IT-97-25-A, 17 September 2003, paras. 218–229.564 See, Prosecutor v. Milorad Krnojelac, ICTY, Appeal Chamber Judgment, Case No. IT-97-25-A,17 September 2003, paras. 218-222.565 The ILC Special Rapporteur on the expulsion of aliens held that the prohibition of collectiveexpulsion assumed the status of a general principle of international law “recognised by civilisednations”; See, ILC Third Report, op. cit., fn. 43, para. 115.566 See also, Twenty Guidelines on Forced Return, op. cit., fn. 510, Guideline 3.567 CCPR, General Comment No. 15, op. cit., fn. 30, para. 10.568 General Comment No. 29, States of Emergency, CCPR, UN Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.11,31 August 2001, para. 13(d).569 Concluding Observations on Dominican Republic, CERD, op. cit., fn. 500, para. 13.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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