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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

164 | PRACTITIONERS

164 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6At the heart of the prohibition on collective expulsion is a requirementthat individual, fair and objective consideration be given to each case.The European Court of Human Rights has stated that “collective expulsion[. . .] is to be understood as any measure compelling aliens, as agroup, to leave a country, except where such a measure is taken on thebasis of a reasonable and objective examination of the particular caseof each individual alien of the group”. 570 The expulsion procedure mustafford sufficient guarantees demonstrating that the personal circumstancesof each of those concerned have been genuinely and individuallytaken into account. 571 Where individual expulsion decisions do not makesufficient reference to the particular circumstances of each of a groupof migrants in similar circumstances, and where the procedures andtiming of the expulsion of members of the group are similar, this maybe grounds for a finding of collective expulsion in violation of Article 4 ofProtocol 4 ECHR. 572 However, the Court warned that “[t]he fact, however,that a number of aliens are subject to similar decisions does not in itselflead to the conclusion that there is a collective expulsion if each personconcerned has been given the opportunity to put arguments against hisexpulsion to the competent authorities on an individual basis”. 573In the case of Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy, the Grand Chamber ofthe European Court of Human Rights ruled that the prohibition of collectiveexpulsion under Article 4 of Protocol 4 applies extraterritorially.The Court held that “the removal of aliens carried out in the contextof interceptions on the high seas by the authorities of a State in theexercise of their sovereign authority, the effect of which is to preventmigrants from reaching the borders of the State or even to push themback to another State, constitutes an exercise of jurisdiction within themeaning of Article 1 of the Convention which engages the responsibilityof the State in question under Article 4 of Protocol No. 4.” 574The Inter-American Court of Human Rights upheld a similar definitionof collective expulsion than that of the European Court: “the “collective”nature of an expulsion involves a decision that does not make an objec-570 Čonka v. Belgium, ECtHR, Application No. 51564/99, Judgment of 5 February 2002, para. 59. Seealso, Sultani v. France, ECtHR, Application No. 45223/05, Judgment of 20 July 2007, para. 81.571 Ibid., para. 63. Sultani v. France, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 570, para. 81; Hirsi Jamaa and Othersv. Italy, ECtHR, GC, op. cit., fn. 46, para. 184–186.572 Ibid., paras. 61–63.573 M.A. v. Cyprus, ECtHR, Application No. 41872/10, Judgment of 23 July 2013, para. 246. Seealso, para. 254.574 Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy, ECtHR, GC, op. cit., fn. 46, para. 180. The case of Hirsiequates the practice of push-backs in the high seas to collective expulsions. Even beyondthe human rights violations entailed in the practice, the Court stressed that “none of theprovisions of international law cited by the Government justified the applicants being pushedback to Libya, in so far as the rules for the rescue of persons at sea and those governing thefight against people trafficking impose on States the obligation to fulfil the obligations arisingout of international refugee law, including the non-refoulement principle” (para. 134).

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 165tive analysis of the individual circumstances of each alien and, consequently,incurs in arbitrariness”. 575 The Inter-American Court also ruledthat “a proceeding that may result in expulsion or deportation of analien, must be individual, so as to evaluate the personal circumstancesof each subject and comply with the prohibition of collective expulsions.Furthermore, this proceeding should not discriminate on grounds ofnationality, color, race, sex, language, religion, political opinion, socialorigin or other status, and must observe the following minimum guaranteeswith regard to the alien:i) To be expressly and formally informed of the charges against himor her and of the reasons for the expulsion or deportation. This notificationmust include information about his or her rights, such as:a. The possibility of stating his or her case and contesting thecharges against him or her;b. The possibility of requesting and receiving consular assistance,legal assistance and, if appropriate, translation or interpretation;ii) In case of an unfavorable decision, the alien must be entitled tohave his or her case reviewed by the competent authority andappear before this authority for that purpose, andiii) The eventual expulsion may only take effect following a reasoneddecision in keeping with the law that is duly notified.” 576The Inter-American Commission has considered that “[a]n expulsionbecomes collective when the decision to expel is not based on individualcases but on group considerations, even if the group in question is notlarge”. 577 The African Commission has ruled repeatedly that “[m]assexpulsions of any category of persons, whether on the basis of nationality,religion, ethnic, racial or other considerations, “constitute specialviolation of human rights” 578 and a flagrant violation of the Charter. 579The Commission affirmed that collective expulsion may entail many violationsof human rights such as the right to property, to work, to education,to family, and to non-discrimination. 580575 Nadege Dorzema et al. v. Dominican Republic, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 537, para. 171.576 Ibid., para. 175.577 IACHR, Report on Terrorism and Human Rights, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 404.578 IHRDA v. Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, para. 69. See also, RADDH v. Zambia,ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 19; African Institute for Human Rights and Development(AIHRD) (on behalf of Sierra Leonean refugees in Guinea) v. Republic of Guinea, ACommHPR,Communication No. 249/2002, 36 th Ordinary Session, 23 November–7 December 2004,Annex IV, p. 131, para. 69; OMCT and Others v. Rwanda, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 65.579 RADDH v. Zambia, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 31.580 UIADH v. Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 43, paras. 14–18.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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