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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

180 | PRACTITIONERS

180 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6sufficient detail the basis for such action, and the State should alwaysbear the burden of justifying a detention. Moreover, authorities have avery narrow and limited margin of discretion, and guarantees for therevision of the detention should be available at a minimum in reasonableintervals.” 649The requirement that the law governing detention must be accessible,precise and foreseeable has particular implications in the case of migrants,faced with an unfamiliar legal system, often in an unfamiliarlanguage. The authorities are required to take steps to ensure thatsufficient information is available to detained persons in a languagethey understand, regarding the nature of their detention, the reasonsfor it, the process for reviewing or challenging the decision to detain.The European Court of Human Rights has held that “the absence ofelaborate reasoning for [a] deprivation of liberty renders that measureincompatible with the requirement of lawfulness inherent in Article 5 ofthe Convention”. 650 For the information to be accessible, it must alsobe presented in a form that takes account of the individual’s level ofeducation, and legal advice may be required for the individual to fullyunderstand his or her circumstances. 6513. Detention must not be arbitrary, unnecessary ordisproportionateThe European Court of Human Rights has held that, in order to avoid arbitrariness,detention must, in addition to complying with national law:• be carried out in good faith and not involve deception on the partof the authorities;• be closely connected to the purpose of preventing unauthorisedentry of the person to the country or deportation;• the place and conditions of detention must be appropriate, bearingin mind that the measure is applicable not to those who havecommitted criminal offences but to people who have fled fromtheir own country, often in fear of their lives;649 IACHR, Report on Terrorism and Human Rights, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 379.650 Lokpo and Toure v. Hungary, ECtHR, Application No. 10816/10, Judgment of 20 September2011, para. 24.651 Nasrulloyev v. Russia, ECtHR, Application No. 656/06, Judgment of 11 October 2007,para. 77; Chahal v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 43, para. 118; Saadi v. UnitedKingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 625, para. 74; Abdolkhani and Karimnia v. Turkey, EctHR,op. cit., fn. 627, paras. 131–135; Amuur v. France, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 45; Soldatenko v.Ukraine, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 361. See also, Vélez Loor v. Panama, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 536,paras. 116, 180; WGAD, Annual Report 1998, op. cit., fn. 643, para. 69, Guarantees 1and 5; WGAD, Annual Report 1999, op. cit., fn. 643, Principles 1 and 8; WGAD, AnnualReport 2008, op. cit., fn. 624, paras. 67 and 82.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 181• the length of the detention must not exceed that reasonably requiredfor the purpose pursued. 652The European Court of Human Rights, applying Article 5.1(f) ECHR, hasfound that, provided that these tests are met and that the detention canbe shown to be for the purposes of preventing unauthorised entry orwith a view to deportation, it is not necessary to show further that thedetention of the individual is reasonable, necessary or proportionate,for example to prevent the person concerned from committing an offenceor fleeing. 653 In Saadi v. United Kingdom, the Court therefore heldthat short-term detention, in appropriate conditions, for the purposesof efficient processing of cases under accelerated asylum procedures,was permissible in circumstances where the respondent State facedan escalating flow of asylum seekers. 654 The approach of the Court toArticle 5.1(f) is in contrast to justification of detention on certain othergrounds under Article 5.1(b), (d) and (e), under which there must bean assessment of the necessity and proportionality of the detention inthe circumstances of the individual case, and detention must be usedonly as a last resort. 655By contrast, under Article 9 of the ICCPR, as well as in internationalrefugee law in regard to asylum seekers, the State must show that thedetention was reasonable, necessary and proportionate in the circumstancesof the individual case, in order to establish that detention is notarbitrary. 656 To establish the necessity and proportionality of detention,it must be shown that other less intrusive measures have been consideredand found to be insufficient. In C. v. Australia, 657 the Human652 Saadi v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 625, para. 74.653 Chahal v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 43, para. 112; Saadi v. United Kingdom,ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 625, para. 72. This is in contrast to justification of detention under Article5.1(b), (d) and (e), under which there must be an assessment of the necessity and proportionalityof the detention in the circumstances of the individual case, and detention mustbe used only as a last resort: Saadi v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 625, para. 70.654 Saadi v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 625, paras. 75–80655 Ibid., para. 70.656 A. v. Australia, CCPR, Communication No. 560/1993, Views of 30 April 1997, para. 9.3: “TheState must provide more than general reasons to justify detention: in order to avoid arbitrariness,the State must advance reasons for detention particular to the individual case. Itmust also show that, in the light of the author’s particular circumstances, there were no lessinvasive means of achieving the same ends.” Saed Shams and Others v. Australia, CommunicationNo.1255/2004, 11 September 2007; Samba Jalloh v. the Netherlands, CCPR, CommunicationNo. 794/1998, Views of 15 April 2002: arbitrariness” must be interpreted morebroadly than “against the law” to include elements of unreasonableness; F.K.A.G. v. Australia,CCPR, Communication No. 2094/2011, Views of 26 July 2013, para. 9.3. In that case was notunreasonable to detain considering the risk of escape, as had previously fled from open facility.See, Yvon Neptune v. Haiti, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 624, para. 98, containing a restatementof the Inter-American Court jurisprudence on necessity and proportionality.657 C. v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 350. See also, Al-Gertani v. Bosnia and Herzegovina, CCPR,op. cit., fn. 606, para. 10.4.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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