Views
3 years ago

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

182 | PRACTITIONERS

182 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Rights Committee found a violation of Article 9.1 on the basis that theState did not consider less intrusive means, such as “the impositionof reporting obligations, sureties or other conditions which would takeaccount of the author’s deteriorating condition. In these circumstances,whatever the reasons for the original detention, continuance of immigrationdetention for over two years without individual justification andwithout any chance of substantive judicial review was . . . arbitrary andconstituted a violation of Article 9.1”.In F.K.A.G. v Australia, the Human Rights Committee reaffirmed itsgeneral approach on arbitrariness of detention. It held that “detentionmust be justified as reasonable, necessary and proportionate in lightof the circumstances and reassessed as it extends in time. Asylumseekerswho unlawfully enter a State party’s territory may be detainedfor a brief initial period in order to document their entry, recordtheir claims, and determine their identity if it is in doubt. To detainthem further while their claims are being resolved would be arbitraryabsent particular reasons specific to the individual, such as an individualizedlikelihood of absconding, danger of crimes against others,or risk of acts against national security. The decision must considerrelevant factors case-by-case, and not be based on a mandatory rulefor a broad category; must take into account less invasive means ofachieving the same ends, such as reporting obligations, sureties, orother conditions to prevent absconding; and must be subject to periodicre-evaluation and judicial review. The decision must also takeinto account the needs of children and the mental health conditionof those detained. Individuals must not be detained indefinitely onimmigration control grounds if the State party is unable to carry outtheir expulsion”. 658Both the ICCPR and the ECHR require that the length of detention mustbe as short as possible, and the more detention is prolonged, the moreit is likely to become arbitrary. 659 Excessive length of detention, or uncertaintyas to its duration, may also raise issues of cruel, inhuman ordegrading treatment, and the Committee against Torture has repeatedlywarned against the use of prolonged or indefinite detention in the immigrationcontext. 660 Prolonged detention of minors calls for particularly658 F.K.A.G. v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 656, para. 9.3.659 See, WGAD, Annual Report 1998, op. cit., fn. 643, para. 69, Guarantee 10; WGAD, AnnualReport 1999, op. cit., fn. 643, Principle 7; WGAD, Annual Report 2008, op. cit., fn. 624,paras. 67 and 82.660 Concluding Observations on Sweden, CAT, UN Doc. CAT/C/SWE/CO/2, 4 June 2008, para.12: detention should be for the shortest possible time; Concluding Observations on CostaRica, CAT, UN Doc. CAT/C/CRI/CO/2, 7 July 2008, para. 10 expressed concern at failure tolimit the length of administrative detention of non-nationals. CAT recommended: “the StateParty should set a maximum legal period for detention pending deportation, which should inno circumstances be indefinite.”

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 183strict scrutiny and may violate obligations under the CRC (Articles 3and 37) as well as Article 24 ICCPR. 661Where a national court orders the release of a detainee, delay in implementingthe Court’s order may lead to arbitrary detention. TheEuropean Court has held that although “some delay in implementinga decision to release a detainee is understandable and often inevitablein view of practical considerations relating to the running of the courtsand the observance of particular formalities . . . the national authoritiesmust attempt to keep it to a minimum . . . formalities connected with releasecannot justify a delay of more than a few hours.” 662 In Eminbeyliv. Russia, 663 three days to communicate a decision and to release theapplicant was found to lead to a violation of Article 5.1(f).The Inter-American Court of Human Rights also makes an assessmentas to the legitimate aim of the detention, and its adequacy, necessityand proportionality to the legitimate aim. 664 The Court has held in VélezLoor v. Panama that automatic detention following irregular presenceis arbitrary as any decision on detention must assess the individualcircumstances of the case. 665 Preventive detention may be a legitimatemeans to assure the implementation of a deportation, 666 however “theaim of imposing a punitive measure on the migrant who re-enters irregularlythe country after a previous deportation order does not constitutea legitimate aim under the [American] Convention”. 667 Finally, the Courtheld that “it is essential that States have at their disposal a catalogueof alternative measures [to detention] that may be effective to reachthe pursued aims. Accordingly, migration policies whose central axis isthe mandatory detention of irregular migrants will be arbitrary, if thecompetent authorities do not verify case-by-case, and individually, thepossibility of using less restrictive measures that are effective to reachthose aims”. 668The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights has highlighted fourinstances in which detention of migrants or asylum-seekers may bearbitrary:661 Concluding Observations on Czech Republic, CCPR, UN Doc. CCPR/C/CZE/CO/2, 9 August2007, para. 15: the committee expressed concern at legislation permitting the detention ofthose under the age of 18 for up to 90 days, in light of obligations under Articles 10 and 24ICCPR, and recommended that this period should be reduced.662 Eminbeyli v. Russia, ECtHR, Application No. 42443/02, Judgment of 26 February 2009,para. 49.663 Ibid., para. 49.664 Vélez Loor v. Panama, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 166.665 Ibid., para. 118.666 Ibid., para. 169.667 Ibid., para. 169 (our translation).668 Ibid., para. 171 (our translation).

  • Page 1 and 2:

    Migration andInternational Human Ri

  • Page 3 and 4:

    Migration andInternational Human Ri

  • Page 5 and 6:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 7 and 8:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 9 and 10:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 11 and 12:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 13 and 14:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 15 and 16:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 17 and 18:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 19 and 20:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 21 and 22:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 23 and 24:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 25 and 26:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 27 and 28:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 29 and 30:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 31 and 32:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 33 and 34:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 35 and 36:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 37 and 38:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 39 and 40:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 41 and 42:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 43 and 44:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 45 and 46:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 47 and 48:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 49:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 52 and 53:

    36 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6of ri

  • Page 54 and 55:

    38 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the i

  • Page 56 and 57:

    40 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6• A

  • Page 58 and 59:

    42 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6heigh

  • Page 60 and 61:

    44 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6worke

  • Page 62 and 63:

    46 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6activ

  • Page 64 and 65:

    48 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6rent

  • Page 66 and 67:

    50 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAPT

  • Page 68 and 69:

    52 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6terri

  • Page 70 and 71:

    54 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the U

  • Page 72 and 73:

    56 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The A

  • Page 74 and 75:

    58 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ii) G

  • Page 76 and 77:

    60 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6gende

  • Page 78 and 79:

    62 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Note

  • Page 80 and 81:

    64 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6A lim

  • Page 82 and 83:

    66 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The U

  • Page 84 and 85:

    68 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Box 3

  • Page 86 and 87:

    70 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6be su

  • Page 88 and 89:

    72 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6right

  • Page 90 and 91:

    74 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the a

  • Page 92 and 93:

    76 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6isfy

  • Page 94 and 95:

    78 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6In pa

  • Page 96 and 97:

    80 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6and i

  • Page 98 and 99:

    82 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6It is

  • Page 100 and 101:

    84 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Under

  • Page 102 and 103:

    86 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6lies

  • Page 104 and 105:

    88 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the p

  • Page 106 and 107:

    90 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6evolv

  • Page 108 and 109:

    92 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6also

  • Page 110 and 111:

    94 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6permi

  • Page 112 and 113:

    96 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6es in

  • Page 114 and 115:

    98 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6State

  • Page 116 and 117:

    100 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 65. S

  • Page 118 and 119:

    102 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Unde

  • Page 120 and 121:

    104 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6tion

  • Page 122 and 123:

    106 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6they

  • Page 124 and 125:

    108 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP

  • Page 126 and 127:

    110 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6has

  • Page 128 and 129:

    112 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6for

  • Page 130 and 131:

    114 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6prot

  • Page 132 and 133:

    116 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6to s

  • Page 134 and 135:

    118 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ment

  • Page 136 and 137:

    120 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6also

  • Page 138 and 139:

    122 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6nati

  • Page 140 and 141:

    124 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6(iv)

  • Page 142 and 143:

    126 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6char

  • Page 144 and 145:

    128 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6In t

  • Page 146 and 147:

    130 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6this

  • Page 148 and 149: 132 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6thro
  • Page 150 and 151: 134 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6In t
  • Page 152 and 153: 136 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6proh
  • Page 154 and 155: 138 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6mate
  • Page 156 and 157: 140 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6just
  • Page 158 and 159: 142 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6“p
  • Page 160 and 161: 144 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 63. t
  • Page 162 and 163: 146 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Furt
  • Page 164 and 165: 148 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6poss
  • Page 166 and 167: 150 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP
  • Page 168 and 169: 152 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6proc
  • Page 170 and 171: 154 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the
  • Page 172 and 173: 156 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6expu
  • Page 174 and 175: 158 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Box
  • Page 176 and 177: 160 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•
  • Page 178 and 179: 162 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6have
  • Page 180 and 181: 164 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6At t
  • Page 182 and 183: 166 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Box
  • Page 184 and 185: 168 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The
  • Page 186 and 187: 170 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6exec
  • Page 188 and 189: 172 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6huma
  • Page 190 and 191: 174 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6“i
  • Page 192 and 193: 176 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Arti
  • Page 194 and 195: 178 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6to r
  • Page 196 and 197: 180 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6suff
  • Page 200 and 201: 184 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•
  • Page 202 and 203: 186 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6vent
  • Page 204 and 205: 188 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6One
  • Page 206 and 207: 190 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6tion
  • Page 208 and 209: 192 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6orde
  • Page 210 and 211: 194 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ICCP
  • Page 212 and 213: 196 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6gans
  • Page 214 and 215: 198 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6one
  • Page 216 and 217: 200 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6his
  • Page 218 and 219: 202 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6For
  • Page 220 and 221: 204 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6c) A
  • Page 222 and 223: 206 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the
  • Page 224 and 225: 208 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6race
  • Page 226 and 227: 210 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ing
  • Page 228 and 229: 212 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6left
  • Page 230 and 231: 214 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6judi
  • Page 232 and 233: 216 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6b) R
  • Page 234 and 235: 218 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6upon
  • Page 236 and 237: 220 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6well
  • Page 238 and 239: 222 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•
  • Page 240 and 241: 224 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Wher
  • Page 242 and 243: 226 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP
  • Page 244 and 245: 228 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6This
  • Page 246 and 247: 230 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The
  • Page 248 and 249:

    232 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6law

  • Page 250 and 251:

    234 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6a re

  • Page 252 and 253:

    236 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Huma

  • Page 254 and 255:

    238 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the

  • Page 256 and 257:

    240 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6same

  • Page 258 and 259:

    242 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6civi

  • Page 260 and 261:

    244 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6As f

  • Page 262 and 263:

    246 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6priv

  • Page 264 and 265:

    248 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 266 and 267:

    250 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6has

  • Page 268 and 269:

    252 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 270 and 271:

    254 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6allo

  • Page 272 and 273:

    256 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6stre

  • Page 274 and 275:

    258 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6is c

  • Page 276 and 277:

    260 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6educ

  • Page 278 and 279:

    262 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP

  • Page 280 and 281:

    264 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ther

  • Page 282 and 283:

    266 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6not

  • Page 284 and 285:

    268 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 286 and 287:

    270 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6also

  • Page 288 and 289:

    272 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Wher

  • Page 290 and 291:

    274 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 292 and 293:

    276 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6port

  • Page 294 and 295:

    278 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 296 and 297:

    280 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6irre

  • Page 298 and 299:

    282 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6any

  • Page 300 and 301:

    284 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6serv

  • Page 302 and 303:

    286 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6d) P

  • Page 304 and 305:

    288 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Cent

  • Page 306 and 307:

    290 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ANNE

  • Page 308 and 309:

    292 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ANNE

  • Page 310 and 311:

    294 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6of w

  • Page 312 and 313:

    296 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Amer

  • Page 314 and 315:

    298 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6righ

  • Page 316 and 317:

    300 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6of a

  • Page 318 and 319:

    302 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6a re

  • Page 320 and 321:

    304 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6prov

  • Page 322 and 323:

    306 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6one,

  • Page 324 and 325:

    308 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6When

  • Page 326 and 327:

    310 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Ther

  • Page 328 and 329:

    312 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 330 and 331:

    314 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the

  • Page 332 and 333:

    316 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6dire

  • Page 334 and 335:

    318 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6II.

  • Page 336 and 337:

    320 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Comm

  • Page 338 and 339:

    322 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Admi

  • Page 340 and 341:

    324 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6fina

  • Page 342 and 343:

    326 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 63. E

  • Page 344 and 345:

    328 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6asks

  • Page 346 and 347:

    330 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 348 and 349:

    332 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6subm

  • Page 350 and 351:

    334 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ligh

  • Page 352 and 353:

    336 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 354 and 355:

    338 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6a) B

  • Page 356 and 357:

    340 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6resp

  • Page 358 and 359:

    342 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Spec

  • Page 360:

    344 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6(d)

  • Page 364:

    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng
Universal-ESCR-PG-no-8-Publications-Practitioners-guide-2014-eng
Universal-PG-13-Judicial-Accountability-Publications-Reports-Practitioners-Guide-2016-ENG
Universal-Fight-against-impunity-PG-no7-comp-Publications-Practitioners-guide-series-2015-ENG
Universal-PG-11-Asylum-Claims-SOGI-Publications-Practitioners-Guide-Series-2016-ENG
Universal-PG-13-Judicial-Accountability-Publications-Reports-Practitioners-Guide-2016-ENG
dcu-pg-prospectus-2014
presentation-2014-eng-screen
18784-PG-Prospectus---ENG-final-web
pg. 6 - SAIF Corporation
A-Picture-of-the-Nation-2014-Eng
Universal-Womens-accesss-to-justice-Publications-Practitioners-Guide-Series-2016-ENG
Universal-Womens-accesss-to-justice-Publications-Practitioners-Guide-Series-2016-ENG
HIPS-2014-Annual-Report-ENG.
PG Urban Conservation - University of Leicester
Pgs 25-26 - Salisbury University
Post-partum management of gestational diabetes Pg.6
Universal-Enforced-Disappearance-and-Extrajudicial-Execution-PGNo9-Publications-Practitioners-guide-series-2015-ENG
Session 6 - Sara Dorow - Institute for Public Economics - University ...