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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

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186 | PRACTITIONERS

186 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6venting unauthorised entry. In Saadi v. United Kingdom it held thatArticle 5.1(f) could not be interpreted as permitting detention only ofpersons attempting to evade entry restrictions, but also applied to otherentrants, since until a State has authorised entry, any entry is unauthorised.678 Nevertheless, the State must show that detention of those seekingentry to the country is reasonably justified. Factors such as the numbersof asylum seekers seeking entry to the country, and administrativedifficulties, may contribute to the reasonableness of detention. In Saadi v.United Kingdom, these factors, and the fact that the UK authorities wereusing detention in good faith as a way of speedily processing asylumseekers through accelerated procedures, helped to justify seven days’detention in suitable conditions. 679 The conditions of detention are alsoimportant when considering the maximum length possible of a detentionto prevent unauthorized entry. The Court has found a detention to be arbitrary,where the periods of detention amounted to three months or sixmonths in inappropriate conditions while a determination was pending inrespect of the migrant’s entitlement to stay on the territory. 680Nevertheless, laws and procedures must ensure that detention on entrydoes not adversely affect rights under international refugee law to gaineffective access to procedures for claiming refugee status. 681The UN Human Rights Committee conducts a more individualised assessmentof the necessity and proportionality of detention of those seekingentry to the country. Although it accepts in principle that detention on thebasis of illegal entry to the country may be permissible and not necessarilyarbitrary, 682 it requires that such detention be shown to be necessary in thecircumstances of the particular case. 683 In A. v. Australia 684 the Committeestressed that there must be reasonable justification for a particular detention,and that the detention must not last beyond the period for which thisjustification applies. The Committee has also found that detention on entrymay be justified for the purposes of verification of identity, although suchdetention may become arbitrary if it is unduly prolonged. 685678 Saadi v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 625, paras. 64–66.679 Ibid., paras. 76–80.680 Suso Musa v. Malta, ECtHR, Application No. 42337/12, Judgment of 23 July 2013, paras.100–103 ; Kanagaratnam and Others v. Belgium, ECtHR, Application No. 15297/09, Judgmentof 13 December 2011, paras. 94–95.681 Amuur v. France, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 45, para. 43.682 A. v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 656, para. 9.3.683 Madafferi and Madafferi v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 460, para. 9.2: “although the detentionof unauthorised arrivals is not per se arbitrary, remand in custody could be consideredarbitrary if it is not necessary in all the circumstances of the case: the element of proportionalitybecomes relevant.”684 A. v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 656, paras. 9.3–9.4.685 Bakhtiyari v. Australia, CCPR, Communication No.1069/2002, Views of 6 November 2003,paras. 9.2–9.3; F.K.A.G. v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 656, para. 9.3.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 187b) Detention pending deportationUnder the ECHR, unlike the ICCPR, the specific terms of Article 5.1(f)narrow the scrutiny which will be applied to detentions pending deportation.In such cases, it is sufficient for the State to show that action is beingtaken with a view to deportation. It is not necessary to show that thesubstance of the decision to deport is justified under national law; nor isit necessary to show that other factors, such as the propensity to escape,or the risk of commission of a criminal offence, warrant detention. 686 Thisis in contrast to the jurisprudence of the Human Rights Committee applyingthe ICCPR, by which, if the decision is not to be arbitrary, individualcircumstances that justify detention must be established in each case. 687In order for detention to be justified, the State must establish thatdeportation is being pursued with due diligence. 688 Longer periods ofdetention may be justified by the complexity of a case or where theactions of the applicant have led to delays. 689However, where proceedings have been suspended for a significant period,690 or where deportation is no longer being actively pursued or is excessivelydelayed, then detention will no longer be justified. 691 Equally,if the authorities are unable to pursue a deportation because sendingthe person to the country of origin would be in breach of the principle ofnon-refoulement (see, Chapter 2), detention pending deportation can nolonger be justified. 692 The same applies when other legal or practical obstaclesimpede the deportation, such as the fact that the concerned personis stateless and there is no other State willing to accept him or her. 693686 Čonka v. Belgium, ECtHR op. cit., fn. 570, para. 38: “Article 5.1(f) does not require thatthe detention of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to deportation bereasonably considered necessary, for example to prevent his committing an offence or fleeing. . . all that is required under sub-paragraph (f) is that “action is being taken with a viewto deportation”. Soldatenko v. Ukraine, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 361, para. 109.687 Samba Jalloh v. the Netherlands, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 656, para. 8; Danyal Shafiq v. Australia,CCPR, Communication No. 1324/2004, Views of 13 November 2006, paras. 7.2–7.3.688 Chahal v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 43, para. 113: “any deprivation of liberty underArticle 5.1(f) will be justified only for as long as deportation proceedings are in progress.If such proceedings are not prosecuted with due diligence, the detention will cease to bepermissible.” See, Lokpo and Toure v. Hungary, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 650, para. 22, wherea five month detention with a view to expulsion that never materialized contributed to thedeclaration of unlawfulness of the detention.689 Kolompar v. Belgium, ECtHR, Application No. 11613/85, Judgment of 24 September 1992,paras. 40–43.690 Ryabikin v. Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 356, para. 131, in the context of extradition proceedings,which were suspended for more than a year.691 Quinn v. France, ECtHR, Application No. 18580/91, Judgment of 22 March 1995; A. andOthers v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 3455/05, Judgment of 19 February2009, para. 164. See also, WGAD, Annual Report 2008, op. cit., fn. 624, paras. 67 and 82.692 Mikolenko v. Estonia, ECtHR, Application No. 10664.05, Judgment of 8 October 2009,para. 65. See also, WGAD, Annual Report 2008, op. cit., fn. 624, paras. 67 and 82.693 A. and Others v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 691, para. 167.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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