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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

194 | PRACTITIONERS

194 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ICCPR, administrative detention without trial is permitted in exceptionalcircumstances, to the extent that it can be shown not to be arbitrary,and to be in accordance with principles of necessity, proportionality andnon-discrimination and based on grounds and procedures established bylaw, 718 in practice such detention is unlikely to be permissible where thereis not a derogation from Article 9 ICCPR in a declared state of emergency.719 The UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention has held the practiceof preventive detention to be generally incompatible with internationalhuman rights law. In 2009, the Working Group declared administrativedetention to be inadmissible in relation to persons suspected of terrorism-relatedconduct. 720 Previously, in 1993, the Working Group examinedthe use of administrative detention and concluded that it is arbitrary onprocedural grounds if fair trial standards are violated. The Working Groupalso found that administrative detention was “inherently arbitrary” whereit was, de jure or de facto, of an indefinite nature. 721The European Convention system imposes strict limitations on the useof administrative detention. Under the ECHR, administrative detentionwithout trial is not a specified ground for which detention is permittedunder Article 5 ECHR and therefore can only be legitimately imposedwhere the State derogates from its Article 5 obligations in a time of publicemergency threatening the life of the nation (under Article 15 ECHR) andwhere the use of administrative detention can be shown to be “strictlyrequired by the exigencies of the situation” and necessary, proportionateand non-discriminatory in the context of the particular emergency situationthat prevails. 722 Measures which impose security-related administra-718 General Comment No. 8, Right to Liberty and Security of the Person, CCPR, UN Doc.HRI/GEN/1/Rev.9 (Vol.I), 30 June 1982, para. 4. See also, Concluding Observations onJordan, CCPR, UN Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.35, 10 August 1994, paras. 226–244; ConcludingObservations on Morocco, CCPR, UN Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.44, 23 November 1994, para. 21;and, Concluding Observations on Zambia, CCPR, UN Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.62, 3 April 1996,para. 14. See, generally, International Commission of Jurists, Memorandum on InternationalLegal Framework on Administrative Detention and Counter-Terrorism, March 2006.719 The Committee has also emphasised that the totality of ICCPR Article 9 safeguards applyeven when there is a “clear and serious threat to society which cannot be contained in anyother manner” except through preventive detention. See, Cámpora Schweizer v. Uruguay,CCPR, Communication No. 66/1980, Views of 12 October 1982, para. 18.1.720 WGAD, Annual Report 2008, op. cit., fn. 624, para.54. The Working Group states that:“(a) Terrorist activities carried out by individuals shall be considered as punishable criminaloffences, which shall be sanctioned by applying current and relevant penal and criminalprocedure laws according to the different legal systems; (b) resort to administrative detentionagainst suspects of such criminal activities is inadmissible; (c) the detention of personswho are suspected of terrorist activities shall be accompanied by concrete charges [. ..]”.721 WGAD, Annual Report 1992, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1993/24, 12 January 1993, Deliberation No. 4,Conclusions at III.B. See also, WGAD, Report on the visit to the People’s Republic of China,UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/44/Add.2, 22 December 1997, paras. 80–99 and 109.722 Lawless v. Ireland (No. 3), ECtHR, Application No. 332/57, Judgment of 1 July 1961,paras. 13 and 14; Ireland v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, Plenary, Application No. 5310/71,18 January 1978, paras. 194–196 and 212–213; A. and Others v. United Kingdom, ECtHR,op. cit., fn. 691, para. 172.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 195tive detention exclusively on those subject to immigration control, in circumstanceswhere others may also pose similar security risks, have beenfound to discriminate unjustifiably between nationals and non-nationalsand therefore to amount to disproportionate measures of derogation inviolation of Article 5 ECHR. 723 Issues of judicial review of security-relateddetentions, whether characterised as immigration law measures or asadministrative detention, are considered further at Section IV.3.b.b) Detention by private actorsAs a general principle, international law requires States to take steps toensure that the conduct of non-state actors does not impair the enjoymentof human rights. The right to liberty under international humanrights law also prohibits arbitrary detention by private, non-state actors.In regard to such detention, it imposes positive obligations on the Stateto take measures to prevent and punish such detentions. This will oftenbe relevant in the immigration context in cases of trafficking and exploitativelabour practices. Such private sphere restrictions on liberty willoften involve imprisonment in the workplace or home alongside confiscationof passports and other travel documents, as well as other substantialrestrictions on liberty amounting to detention. Such situations arealso likely to raise issues of the right to freedom from slavery, servitudeor forced labour (see, further, Chapter 6). As noted above (Section I)even where they do not involve situations of private-sphere detention,they may nonetheless raise issues in relation to freedom of movement.In accordance with the right to liberty, the State has a duty to providean adequate legal framework which criminalises unauthorised detentionby private actors; to take all appropriate measures to enforce thecriminal law effectively, to establish prompt, thorough and independentinvestigations into credible allegations of detention by private actors;and to provide other appropriate reparations to victims. Where the authoritiesare aware of concerns that a particular individual is being heldin violation of the right to liberty, they must take all reasonable measuresto prevent and end the violation. 724A different situation arises when non-state actors, including private actors,exercise elements of governmental authority in place of State or-723 A. and Others v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 691, para. 190. In light of this findingthe Grand Chamber found it unnecessary to consider whether the measure also violatedArticle 14 ECHR in conjunction with Article 5.724 CCPR, General Comment No. 31, op. cit., fn. 46, paras. 8, 15, and 18; Article 2 CPED; Storckv. Germany, ECtHR, Application No. 61603/00, Judgment of 16 June 2005; Kurt v. Turkey,ECtHR, Case No. 15/1997/799/1002, Judgment of 25 May 1998, para. 124; Venice Commission,Opinion 363/2005, op. cit., fn. 352, para. 53: “Article 5 must be seen as requiring theauthorities of the territorial State to take effective measures to safeguard against the risk ofdisappearance and to conduct a prompt effective investigation into a substantial claim thata person has been taken into custody and has not been seen since.”

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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