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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

198 | PRACTITIONERS

198 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6one or more independent national mechanisms for the prevention oftorture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment withpowers of access to detention centres. 7361. Appropriateness of place of detentionInternational guidance stipulates that, except for short periods, detainedmigrants should be held in specifically designed centres in conditionstailored to their legal status and catering for their particular needs. 737Under the particular scheme of Article 5 ECHR, holding a detainee ina facility which is inappropriate in light of the grounds on which he orshe is held (for example for the prevention of unlawful entry or pendingdeportation under Article 5.1(f)) may also violate the right to liberty. 738So for example, it has been held that holding a child asylum seeker withadults in a facility not adapted to her needs, violated the right to liberty.739 A similar rationale would be likely to apply to the long-term use ofprisons or police cells for immigration detention.In general, under international human rights law, the detention of migrantsin unsuitable locations, including police stations or prisons, maylead or contribute to violations of freedom from torture or cruel, inhumanor degrading treatment. 740 In relation to particular classes ofmigrants, it may also violate other international standards, including, inthe case of minors, requirements to act in the best interests of the childunder the CRC. International and regional standards as well as conclusionsof UN treaty bodies and the UNHCR consistently recommendthat asylum seekers or other migrants should not be detained in policeor prison custody. The length of time for which someone is held in adetention facility is often relevant to whether the detention amounts toill-treatment. For example, while detention of a migrant at an airportmay be acceptable for a short period of a few hours on arrival, moreprolonged detention without appropriate facilities for sleeping, eatingor hygiene could amount to ill-treatment. 741 This has been recognised736 See, Articles 3, 17–22, OPCAT.737 CPT Standards, op. cit., fn. 629, p. 54, Extract from 7 th General Report [CPT/Inf (97) 10],para. 29; European Guidelines on accelerated asylum procedures, CMCE, op. cit., fn. 119,Principle XI.7: “detained asylum seekers should normally be accommodated within theshortest possible time in facilities specifically designated for that purpose, offering materialconditions and a regime appropriate to their legal and factual situation and staffed by suitablyqualified personnel. Detained families should be provided with separate accommodationguaranteeing adequate privacy.” See also, Vélez Loor v. Panama, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 536,para. 209.738 Aerts v. Belgium, ECtHR, Application No. 25357/94, Judgment of 30 July 1998, para. 46.739 Mayeka and Mitunga v. Belgium, ECtHR, Application no 13178/03, Judgment of 12 October2006.740 Under Article 7 and 10.1 ICCPR; Article 3 ECHR; Article 5 ACHR; Article 5 ACHPR.741 CPT Standards, op. cit., fn. 629, p. 54.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 199by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture, which hasemphasised that, although immigration detainees may have to spendsome time in ordinary police detention facilities, given that the conditionsin such places may generally be inadequate for prolonged periodsof detention, the time they spend there should be kept to the absoluteminimum. 742 In Charahili v. Turkey, the European Court of HumanRights found that prolonged detention of the applicant in the basementof a police station, in poor conditions, violated Article 3 ECHR. 743 In R.U.v. Greece, the Court found that the detention of an asylum seeker, whobecause of his status as an asylum seeker was considered by the Courtto be a member of a vulnerable group, for more than two months ininappropriate conditions of detention, constituted degrading treatmentprohibited by Article 3 ECHR. 744 The UN Human Rights Committee hasalso expressed concern at detention of those awaiting deportation inpolice custody for lengthy periods. 745International standards also consistently reject detention of asylumseekers or other migrants in prisons, requiring that other facilitiesshould be put in place or, at a minimum, that in any case asylum seekersand migrants should be kept separate from convicted persons orpersons detained pending trial. 746a) Place of detention of children and familiesInternational standards require that, in those exceptional cases wherechildren are detained, they should be held in facilities and conditionsappropriate to their age. This general principle is established byArticle 37.c CRC, which states that “[e]very child deprived of libertyshall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity ofthe human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needsof persons of his or her age. In particular, every child deprived of libertyshall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child’s bestinterest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with742 Ibid., p. 54.743 Charahili v. Turkey, ECtHR, Application No. 46605/07, Judgment of 13 April 2010.744 R.U. v. Greece, ECtHR, Application No. 2237/08, Judgment of 7 June 2011, para. 63.745 Concluding Observations on Austria, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 188, para. 17. The Committee expressedconcern that asylum seekers awaiting deportation were frequently detained forup to several months in police detention facilities and recommended that the State Party“review its detention policy with regard to asylum seekers [...] and take immediate andeffective measures to ensure that all asylum seekers who are detained pending deportationare held in centres specifically designed for that purpose [...].”746 Concluding Observations on Ireland, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 516, para. 21; Vélez Loor v. Panama,IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 536, paras. 207–208. See also, Concluding Observations on Sweden,CCPR, UN Doc. CCPR/C/SWE/CO/6, 2 April 2009, para. 17; Concluding Observations on NewZealand, CAT, UN Doc. CAT/C/NZL/CO/5, 14 May 2009, para. 6: “The Committee notes withconcern that asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants continue to be detained in lowsecurity and correctional facilities.”; Conclusion No. 44, UNHCR, op. cit., fn. 624, para. 10.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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