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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

210 | PRACTITIONERS

210 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ing mothers as well as women in ill health have access to appropriateservices.” 795The UNHCR Guidelines on Detention also emphasise that where womenasylum-seekers are detained, they should be held separately from men,except where they are close family relatives. The guidelines recommendthe use of female staff in detention facilities for women, and notethe need for additional healthcare facilities. 7964. Protection from ill-treatment, including violencein detentionPhysical or sexual assaults, or excessive or inappropriate use of physicalrestraint techniques—may violate rights including the right to lifeand freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatmentand rights to physical integrity. Where a person is unlawfully killed orsubjected to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment while in detention,there is a presumption that State agents are responsible, and the onusis on the State to provide a satisfactory and convincing explanation tothe contrary. 797In addition, where the State authorities know or ought to know thatparticular individuals held in detention face a real or immediate threatfrom private actors to their life, freedom from cruel, inhuman or degradingtreatment, or physical integrity, there is an obligation to takeall reasonable measures to prevent or end the situation. 798 This arisesas part of the general positive obligations on States to exercise duediligence and take reasonable measures to prevent, protect againstand investigate acts of private persons in violation of these rights. 799Obligations to protect are heightened for persons held in detention, inrespect of whom the State has a special duty of care. 800795 CEDAW, General recommendation No. 26, op. cit., fn. 8, para. 26(j).796 UNHCR Guidelines on Detention, op. cit., fn. 633, Guideline 9.2.797 Anguelova v. Bulgaria, ECtHR, Application No. 38361/97, Judgment of 13 June 2002,paras. 110–111; Salman v. Turkey, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 21986/93, Judgment of27 June 2000, para. 100; Demiray v. Turkey, ECtHR, Application No. 27308/95, Judgmentof 21 November 2000.798 See, Osman v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 23452/94, Judgment of28 October 1998; Anguelova v. Bulgaria, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 797; Pueblo Bello Massacrev. Colombia, IACtHR, Series C No. 140, Judgment of 31 January 2006, para. 123. On obligationsto protect against inter-prisoner violence in detention: Edwards v. United Kingdom,ECtHR, Application No. 46477/99, Judgment of 14 March 2002.799 CCPR, General Comment No. 31, op. cit., fn. 46, para. 8; Osman v. United Kingdom, ECtHR,op. cit., fn. 798; CAT, General Comment No. 2, op. cit., fn. 31, para. 18; CEDAW, GeneralRecommendation No. 19, op. cit., fn. 237, para. 9; Velasquez Rodriguez v. Honduras,IACtHR, Series C No. 1, Judgment of 29 July 1988, para. 172; Pueblo Bello Massacre v.Colombia, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 798, para. 120.800 Salman v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 797.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 211In situations where there is clear potential for gender or ethnic violencein detention, for example, appropriate preventive and security measuresmust be put in place. In Rodic v. Bosnia-Herzegovina, the ECtHRheld that two Serb prisoners held in open, crowded conditions in anethnic Bosnian dominated prison, and subjected to violence by fellowprisoners, without any adequate security measures being taken by theauthorities, suffered mental anxiety as a result of the threat and anticipationof violence that amounted to a violation of Article 3 ECHR. 801 TheInter-American Court has also held that “the State has an obligationto guarantee the right to life and the right to humane treatment of theinmates interned in its penal institutions [and within it] a duty to createthe conditions necessary to avoid, to the maximum extent possible,fighting among inmates”. 802In addition to protection from the acts of officials or fellow detainees,the State also has an obligation to take reasonable measureswithin its power to protect detained persons from acts of self-harmor suicide. 803Women in detention may face particular risks of sexual or gender-basedviolence, either from officials or from private actors. States are requiredto take measures to prevent and protect detainees from all sexual violencein detention, including by making it a criminal offence, and enforcingthe criminal law. Certain forms of sexual violence in detention,such as rape, amount to torture. 804 The Inter-American Court of HumanRights has held, that arbitrary vaginal searches of female detainees byState officials amount to rape and therefore to torture; 805 and that a situationwhere women detainees were held naked and guarded by armedmen also amounted to sexual violence and violated the right to humanetreatment in Article 5.2 ACHR. 806a) Violence or ill-treatment during deportationForced expulsions, during which migrants remain in detention, may alsoinvolve the use of physical force or ill-treatment. As long as an individualbeing deported remains within the authority or control of agentsof the State—for example while being escorted on an aircraft that has801 Rodic and Others v. Bosnia and Herzegovina, ECtHR, Application No. 22893/05, Judgment of27 May 2008, para. 73.802 “Juvenile Reeducation Institute” v. Paraguay, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 752, paras. 184.803 Keenan v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 769, paras. 92–101; Barbato v. Uruguay,CCPR, Communication No. 84/1981, Views of 21 October 1982, para. 9.2.804 Aydin v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 403, paras. 83–86; C.T. and K.M. v. Sweden, CAT,op. cit., fn. 322, para. 7.5.805 Miguel Castro-Castro Prison v. Peru, IACtHR, Series C No. 160, Judgment of 25 November2006, paras. 306–313.806 Ibid.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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