212 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6left the territory of the State—he or she remains within the jurisdictionof the State for the purposes of international human rights law (see,Chapter 1, Section I.2). Unjustifiable use of force or violence by Stateofficials or private agents involved in a deportation, including excessiveor inappropriate use of physical restraints, may violate the right to life,freedom from torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment,or rights to respect for physical integrity. 807 Since persons undergoingforced expulsion are deprived of their liberty, the heightened responsibilityof the State to respect and protect the rights of those in detention,applies. Standards of the European Committee for the Prevention ofTorture on the Deportation of foreign nationals by air 808 note the highrisk of inhuman and degrading treatment involved in such deportationsand provide guidelines to ensure that use of force during deportationis no more than reasonably necessary and that the risk involved inparticular restraint techniques is adequately assessed and taken intoaccount. 809IV. Procedural protection1. Reasons for detentionA person detained for any reason, including for purposes of immigrationcontrol, has the right to be informed promptly of the reasonsfor detention. This right is protected by Article 5.2 ECHR, Article 9.2ICCPR, Article 7 and 8 ACHR, and Article 14.3 ArCHR. AlthoughArticle 5.2 ECHR refers expressly only to the provision of reasons for“arrest”, the European Court of Human Rights has held that this obligationapplies equally to all persons deprived of their liberty throughdetention, including immigration detention, as an integral part ofprotection of the right to liberty. 810 The Inter-American Court hasheld that information on the reasons for detention must be provided807 See, Raninen v. Finland, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 398, para. 56; Öcalan v. Turkey, ECtHR, ApplicationNo. 46221/99, Judgment of 12 March 2003, paras. 182–184, both finding that handcuffingduring transportation of prisoners did not normally violate Article 3 where it did notentail the use of force or public exposure beyond what was reasonably necessary, includingto prevent absconding.808 CPT Standards, op. cit., fn. 629, Deportation of foreign nationals by air, Extract from the13 th General Report [CPT/Inf (2003) 35], p. 66.809 On the use of restraints, see also, Standard Minimum Rules on the Treatment of Prisoners,principles 33 and 34; UN Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty,paras. 63–64.810 Abdolkhani and Karimnia v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 627, paras. 136–137. Shamayev andOthers v. Georgia and Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 434, paras. 413–414. The Court reasonedthat since Article 5.4 and Article 5.2 are closely linked, with knowledge of the reasons fordeprivation of liberty being essential to challenge that detention under Article 5.4, and sinceArticle 5.4 makes no distinction between deprivation of liberty for the purposes of arrest orfor other purposes, the right to reasons for detention applies in all cases of detention.
MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 213“when the detention takes place, [which] constitutes a mechanism toavoid unlawful or arbitrary detentions from the very instant of deprivationof liberty and, also, guarantees the right to defense of theindividual detained.” 811 The Human Rights Committee has stressedthat “one major purpose of requiring that all arrested persons beinformed of the reasons for the arrest is to enable them to seek releaseif they believe that the reasons given are invalid or unfounded;and that the reasons must include not only the general basis of thearrest, but enough factual specifics to indicate the substance of thecomplaint”, 812 bearing consequences for the respect of the detainee’sright to habeas corpus.The right to be informed of reasons for detention is also affirmed byinternational standards and guidelines relating to the detention of migrantsand asylum seekers. The Body of Principles for the Protectionof all persons deprived of their liberty provides in Principle 11.2 that:“a detained person and his counsel, if any, shall receive prompt and fullcommunication of any order of detention, together with the reasonstherefor.” Principle 13 provides that at the commencement of detention,or promptly thereafter, a detained person should be provided with informationon and an explanation of his or her rights and how to availhimself of such rights. 813The UNHCR Guidelines on Detention and the Council of Europe Guidelineson Human Rights Protection in the Context of Accelerated Asylum providethat, if detained, asylum-seekers are entitled to receive promptand full communication of the legal and factual reasons of detention,including detention orders, and of their rights and available remedies,in a language and in terms that they understand. 814Information provided on the reasons for detention must be in simple,non-technical language that can be easily understood, and must includethe essential legal and factual grounds for the detention—including thedetention order—and information concerning the remedies available tothe detainee. The information provided must be sufficiently comprehensiveand precise to allow the detainee to challenge his or her detention811 Yvon Neptune v. Haiti, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 624, para. 105; Humberto Sánchez v. Honduras,IACtHR, Series C No. 99, Judgment of 7 June 2003, para. 82.; Vélez Loor v. Panama, IACtHR,op. cit., fn. 536, paras. 116, 180; Nadege Dorzema et al. v. Dominican Republic, IACtHR,op. cit., fn. 537, para. 132.812 Al-Gertani v. Bosnia and Herzegovina, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 606, para. 10.5; F.K.A.G. v. Australia,CCPR, op. cit., fn. 656, para. 9.5.813 See also, WGAD, Annual Report 1998, op. cit., fn. 643, para. 69, Guarantees 1 and 5; WGAD,Annual Report 1999, op. cit., fn. 643, Principles 1 and 8.814 See, UNHCR Guidelines on Detention, op. cit., fn. 633, Guideline 7; Twenty Guidelines onForced Return, CMCE, op. cit., fn. 510, Guideline 6; and, European Guidelines on acceleratedasylum procedures, CMCE, op. cit., fn. 119, Principle XI.5.