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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

222 | PRACTITIONERS

222 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6• The review must be clearly prescribed by law. Both the lawpermitting detention, and the procedure for its review must besufficiently certain, in theory and in practice, to allow a court toexercise effective judicial review of the permissibility of the detentionunder national law, and to ensure that the review processis accessible. 864 The review of detention must be accessible toall persons detained, including children. In Popov v. France, theEuropean Court of Human Rights found a violation of Article 5.4ECHR in respect of children detained in an immigration centrewith their parents because “the law [did] not provide for the possibilityof placing minors in administrative detention. As a result,children ‘accompanying’ their parents [found] themselves in a legalvacuum, preventing them from using any remedies availableto their parents.” 865 In addition to establishing when detention ispermissible, the law must prescribe a specific legal process for reviewof the legality of detention, separate from the legal processleading to a decision to deport. In the absence of such a separateprocedure, there will be no means of redress for an initially legitimatedetention that becomes illegitimate, for example where adeportation is initially being pursued but is later suspended. 866• The review must be by an independent and impartial judicialbody. This reflects the general standard of the right to a fairhearing, which is given more specific expression in guaranteesrelating to judicial review of detention. 867• The review must be of sufficient scope and have sufficientpowers to be effective. The scope of the judicial review requiredwill differ according to the circumstances of the case and to thekind of deprivation of liberty involved. 868 The European Court ofHuman Rights has held that the review should, however, be wideenough to consider the conditions which are essential for lawfuldetention. 869 The review must be by a body which is more thanmerely advisory, and which has power to issue legally bindingjudgments capable of leading, where appropriate, to release. 870The Human Rights Committee has repeatedly emphasised thatjudicial review requires real and not merely formal review of the864 Z.N.S. v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 756, para. 60; S.D. v. Greece, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 754,para. 73.865 Popov v. France, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 704, para. 96.866 Z.N.S. v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 756, para. 60.867 See, Vélez Loor v. Panama, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 536, para. 108.868 Bouamar v. Belgium, ECtHR, Application No. 9106/80, Judgment of 29 February 1988.869 A. and Others v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 691, para. 202; Chahal v. United Kingdom,ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 43, paras. 127–130.870 Chahal v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 43, para. 128.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 223grounds and circumstances of detention, judicial discretion to orderrelease. In A. v. Australia, 871 it found that allowing the courtto order release of detainees only if they did not fall within a particularcategory of people was insufficient to provide an effectivejudicial review of detention. It emphasised that “[c]ourt reviewof the lawfulness of detention [. . .] must include the possibility ofordering release [and must be], in its effects, real and not merelyformal.” 872 The Inter-American Court has held that the remedy ofhabeas corpus “is not exercised with the mere formal existenceof the remedies it governs. Those remedies must be effective,since their purpose [. . .] is to obtain without delay a decision“on the lawfulness of [the] arrest or detention,” and, should theybe unlawful, to obtain, also without delay, an “order [for] [. . .]release”. 873• The review must meet standards of due process. Although itis not always necessary that the review be attended by the sameguarantees as those required for criminal or civil litigation, 874 itmust have a judicial character and provide guarantees appropriateto the type of deprivation of liberty in question. 875 Thus, proceedingsmust be adversarial and must always ensure “equalityof arms” between the parties. Legal assistance must be providedto the extent necessary for an effective application for release. 876871 A. v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 656.872 C. v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 350, para. 8.3, finding a violation of Article 9.4 where “thecourt review available to the author was confined purely to a formal assessment of the questionwhether the person in question was a “non-citizen” without an entry permit. There wasno discretion for a court [...] to review the author’s detention in substantive terms for thiscontinued justification.” See also, Danyal Shafiq v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 687: “courtreview of the lawfulness of detention under article 9, paragraph 4, which must include thepossibility of ordering release, is not limited to mere formal compliance of the detention withdomestic law governing the detention”; Bakhtiyari v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 685: “As tothe claim under article 9, para. 4, [...] the court review available to Mrs Bakhtiyari would beconfined purely to a formal assessment of whether she was a “non-citizen” without an entrypermit. The Committee observes that there was no discretion for a domestic court to reviewthe justification of her detention in substantive terms. The Committee considers that the inabilityjudicially to challenge a detention that was, or had become, contrary to article 9, para. 1,constitutes a violation of article 9, para. 4.” See also, F.K.A.G. v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit.,fn. 656, para. 9.6. To the same effect see, Rafale Ferrer-Mazorra et al v. United States, IACHR,op. cit., fn. 395, para. 235.873 Suárez-Rosero v. Ecuador, IACtHR, Series C No. 35, Judgment of 12 November 1997,para. 63; Vélez Loor v. Panama, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 536, paras. 142–143.874 A. and Others v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 691, para. 203.875 Bouamar v. Belgium, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 868, para. 60. See, Vélez Loor v. Panama, IACtHR,op. cit., fn. 536, paras. 107–109.876 Ibid., paras. 60–63; Winterwerp v. Netherlands, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 855, para. 60: “essentialthat the person concerned has access to a court and the opportunity to be heard in personor through a legal representative”; Lebedev v. Russia, ECtHR, Application No. 4493/04,Judgment of 25 October 2007, paras. 84–89; Suso Musa v. Malta, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 680,para. 61.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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