Views
2 years ago

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

228 | PRACTITIONERS

228 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6This notwithstanding, certain aspects of the Covenant rights, as regardsthe obligation to fulfil, are subject to the principle of “progressiverealisation” (Article 2.1 ICESCR), an acknowledgement that their fullrealisation might not be achieved immediately and that there may beresource constraints that should be taken into account when assessingState compliance with some of these obligations.3. Prohibition of retrogressive measuresArticle 2.1 ICESCR also prohibits States from taking retrogressive measuresin regard to the rights contained therein. 890 The prohibition ofretrogression “means that any measure adopted by the State that suppresses,restricts or limits the content of the entitlements already guaranteedby law, constitutes a prima facie violation. It entails a comparisonbetween the previously existing and the newly passed legislation,regulations and practices, in order to assess their retrogressive character.”891 A State adopting retrogressive measures breaches its ESC rightsobligations unless it can show that the measures:• were taken in pursuit of a pressing goal;• were strictly necessary; and• there were no alternative or less restrictive measures available. 8924. Non-discrimination and application to non-nationalsIrrespective of whether a particular obligation is of immediate effector is to be realised progressively, it must not be implemented so asto exclude or unjustifiably discriminate against non-nationals. Article 2ICESCR protects against discrimination in relation to the Covenantrights. The CESCR has made clear that the prohibition of discriminationalso includes discrimination against non-citizens on the grounds ofnationality. Although this is not an express ground, it is included under“other grounds” in Article 2.2 ICESCR. The Committee has stated that:“[t]he ground of nationality should not bar access to Covenant rights[. . .]. The Covenant rights apply to everyone including non-nationals,890 See, ibid., para. 9.891 ICJ, Courts and Legal Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, op. cit., fn. 29,p. 6.892 See, CESCR, General Comment No. 3, op. cit., fn. 147, para. 9. See, Free Legal AssistanceGroup and Others v. Zaire, ACommHPR, Communications Nos. 25/89, 47/90, 56/91,100/93, 19 th Ordinary Session, March 1996, para. 48 and holding; Acevedo Buendía et al.(“Discharged and Retired Employees of the Comptroller”) v. Perú, IACtHR, Series C No. 198,Judgment of 1 July 2009, para. 103; Miranda Cortez et al. v. El Salvador, IACHR, CaseNo. 12.249, Report No. 27/09, Merits, 20 March 2009, para. 105 (finding prohibition ofretrogressive measures under Article 26 ACHR); and, National Association of Ex-Employeesof the Peruvian Social Security Institute et al. v. Peru, IACHR, Case No. 12.670, ReportNo. 38/09, Merits, 27 March 2009, para. 140.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 229such as refugees, asylum-seekers, stateless persons, migrant workersand victims of international trafficking, regardless of legal status anddocumentation”. 893 An exception, permitting limitations on the applicationof the Covenant rights to non-nationals is given for developingcountries in Article 2.3 ICESCR. 894The CRC also includes protection against discrimination in regard to theESC rights of children protected by the Convention, including on thebasis of the child’s or the child’s parents’ national origin. The Committeeon the Rights of the Child has stated that “the enjoyment of rights stipulatedin the Convention is not limited to children who are citizens of aState Party and must therefore, if not explicitly stated otherwise in theConvention, also be available to all children—including asylum-seeking,refugee and migrant children—irrespective of their nationality, immigrationstatus or statelessness.” 895The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has ruled that the principlesof equality and non-discrimination, including on the basis of nationality,are peremptory norms of international law, (jus cogens) and thereforeimpose binding obligations on all States, to respect and fulfil them. 896As clarified by the Court, “the obligation to respect and ensure the principleof the right to equal protection and non-discrimination is irrespectiveof a person’s migratory status in a State. In other words, Stateshave the obligation to ensure this fundamental principle to its citizensand to any foreigner who is on its territory, without any discriminationbased on regular or irregular residence, nationality, race, gender or anyother cause.” 897The African Commission has held that measures depriving non-nationalsof rights which are not expressly guaranteed only to citizens (such asthe right to vote) will constitute arbitrary discrimination under Article 2of the African Charter, as “[r]ights under the African Charter are to beenjoyed by all, without discrimination, by citizens and non-nationalsresidents alike.” 898893 CESCR, General Comment No. 20, op. cit., fn. 22, para. 30. See also, Article 42, LimburgPrinciples, op. cit., fn. 888. Certain kinds of discrimination between citizens and non-citizensare also covered by Article 26 ICCPR, but the Human Rights Committee did not precise manycases of application. See, CCPR, General Comment No. 28, op. cit., fn. 22, para. 31.894 However, it is inferred that this provision was limited to end domination of certain economicgroups of non-nationals during colonial times. The fact that the exception is set only for developingcountries means that no other country can advance any exception on this ground.See, Articles 43–44, Limburg Principles, op. cit., fn. 888. Its application has been excluded forchildren by the CRC, General Comment No. 6, op. cit., fn. 138, para. 16.895 CRC, General Comment No. 6, op. cit., fn. 138, paras. 12 and 18.896 Advisory Opinion on Undocumented Migrants, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 33, para. 101 (our emphasis)and holding at para. 4.897 Yean and Bosico Case, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 281, para. 155.898 IHRDA v. Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, para. 80.

  • Page 1 and 2:

    Migration andInternational Human Ri

  • Page 3 and 4:

    Migration andInternational Human Ri

  • Page 5 and 6:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 7 and 8:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 9 and 10:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 11 and 12:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 13 and 14:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 15 and 16:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 17 and 18:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 19 and 20:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 21 and 22:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 23 and 24:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 25 and 26:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 27 and 28:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 29 and 30:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 31 and 32:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 33 and 34:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 35 and 36:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 37 and 38:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 39 and 40:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 41 and 42:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 43 and 44:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 45 and 46:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 47 and 48:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 49:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 52 and 53:

    36 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6of ri

  • Page 54 and 55:

    38 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the i

  • Page 56 and 57:

    40 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6• A

  • Page 58 and 59:

    42 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6heigh

  • Page 60 and 61:

    44 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6worke

  • Page 62 and 63:

    46 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6activ

  • Page 64 and 65:

    48 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6rent

  • Page 66 and 67:

    50 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAPT

  • Page 68 and 69:

    52 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6terri

  • Page 70 and 71:

    54 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the U

  • Page 72 and 73:

    56 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The A

  • Page 74 and 75:

    58 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ii) G

  • Page 76 and 77:

    60 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6gende

  • Page 78 and 79:

    62 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Note

  • Page 80 and 81:

    64 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6A lim

  • Page 82 and 83:

    66 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The U

  • Page 84 and 85:

    68 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Box 3

  • Page 86 and 87:

    70 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6be su

  • Page 88 and 89:

    72 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6right

  • Page 90 and 91:

    74 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the a

  • Page 92 and 93:

    76 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6isfy

  • Page 94 and 95:

    78 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6In pa

  • Page 96 and 97:

    80 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6and i

  • Page 98 and 99:

    82 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6It is

  • Page 100 and 101:

    84 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Under

  • Page 102 and 103:

    86 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6lies

  • Page 104 and 105:

    88 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the p

  • Page 106 and 107:

    90 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6evolv

  • Page 108 and 109:

    92 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6also

  • Page 110 and 111:

    94 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6permi

  • Page 112 and 113:

    96 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6es in

  • Page 114 and 115:

    98 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6State

  • Page 116 and 117:

    100 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 65. S

  • Page 118 and 119:

    102 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Unde

  • Page 120 and 121:

    104 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6tion

  • Page 122 and 123:

    106 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6they

  • Page 124 and 125:

    108 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP

  • Page 126 and 127:

    110 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6has

  • Page 128 and 129:

    112 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6for

  • Page 130 and 131:

    114 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6prot

  • Page 132 and 133:

    116 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6to s

  • Page 134 and 135:

    118 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ment

  • Page 136 and 137:

    120 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6also

  • Page 138 and 139:

    122 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6nati

  • Page 140 and 141:

    124 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6(iv)

  • Page 142 and 143:

    126 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6char

  • Page 144 and 145:

    128 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6In t

  • Page 146 and 147:

    130 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6this

  • Page 148 and 149:

    132 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6thro

  • Page 150 and 151:

    134 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6In t

  • Page 152 and 153:

    136 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6proh

  • Page 154 and 155:

    138 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6mate

  • Page 156 and 157:

    140 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6just

  • Page 158 and 159:

    142 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6“p

  • Page 160 and 161:

    144 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 63. t

  • Page 162 and 163:

    146 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Furt

  • Page 164 and 165:

    148 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6poss

  • Page 166 and 167:

    150 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP

  • Page 168 and 169:

    152 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6proc

  • Page 170 and 171:

    154 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the

  • Page 172 and 173:

    156 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6expu

  • Page 174 and 175:

    158 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Box

  • Page 176 and 177:

    160 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 178 and 179:

    162 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6have

  • Page 180 and 181:

    164 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6At t

  • Page 182 and 183:

    166 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Box

  • Page 184 and 185:

    168 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 186 and 187:

    170 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6exec

  • Page 188 and 189:

    172 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6huma

  • Page 190 and 191:

    174 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6“i

  • Page 192 and 193:

    176 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Arti

  • Page 194 and 195: 178 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6to r
  • Page 196 and 197: 180 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6suff
  • Page 198 and 199: 182 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Righ
  • Page 200 and 201: 184 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•
  • Page 202 and 203: 186 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6vent
  • Page 204 and 205: 188 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6One
  • Page 206 and 207: 190 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6tion
  • Page 208 and 209: 192 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6orde
  • Page 210 and 211: 194 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ICCP
  • Page 212 and 213: 196 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6gans
  • Page 214 and 215: 198 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6one
  • Page 216 and 217: 200 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6his
  • Page 218 and 219: 202 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6For
  • Page 220 and 221: 204 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6c) A
  • Page 222 and 223: 206 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the
  • Page 224 and 225: 208 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6race
  • Page 226 and 227: 210 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ing
  • Page 228 and 229: 212 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6left
  • Page 230 and 231: 214 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6judi
  • Page 232 and 233: 216 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6b) R
  • Page 234 and 235: 218 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6upon
  • Page 236 and 237: 220 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6well
  • Page 238 and 239: 222 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•
  • Page 240 and 241: 224 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Wher
  • Page 242 and 243: 226 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP
  • Page 246 and 247: 230 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The
  • Page 248 and 249: 232 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6law
  • Page 250 and 251: 234 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6a re
  • Page 252 and 253: 236 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Huma
  • Page 254 and 255: 238 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the
  • Page 256 and 257: 240 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6same
  • Page 258 and 259: 242 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6civi
  • Page 260 and 261: 244 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6As f
  • Page 262 and 263: 246 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6priv
  • Page 264 and 265: 248 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•
  • Page 266 and 267: 250 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6has
  • Page 268 and 269: 252 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The
  • Page 270 and 271: 254 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6allo
  • Page 272 and 273: 256 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6stre
  • Page 274 and 275: 258 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6is c
  • Page 276 and 277: 260 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6educ
  • Page 278 and 279: 262 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP
  • Page 280 and 281: 264 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ther
  • Page 282 and 283: 266 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6not
  • Page 284 and 285: 268 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•
  • Page 286 and 287: 270 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6also
  • Page 288 and 289: 272 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Wher
  • Page 290 and 291: 274 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•
  • Page 292 and 293: 276 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6port
  • Page 294 and 295:

    278 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 296 and 297:

    280 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6irre

  • Page 298 and 299:

    282 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6any

  • Page 300 and 301:

    284 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6serv

  • Page 302 and 303:

    286 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6d) P

  • Page 304 and 305:

    288 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Cent

  • Page 306 and 307:

    290 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ANNE

  • Page 308 and 309:

    292 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ANNE

  • Page 310 and 311:

    294 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6of w

  • Page 312 and 313:

    296 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Amer

  • Page 314 and 315:

    298 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6righ

  • Page 316 and 317:

    300 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6of a

  • Page 318 and 319:

    302 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6a re

  • Page 320 and 321:

    304 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6prov

  • Page 322 and 323:

    306 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6one,

  • Page 324 and 325:

    308 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6When

  • Page 326 and 327:

    310 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Ther

  • Page 328 and 329:

    312 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 330 and 331:

    314 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the

  • Page 332 and 333:

    316 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6dire

  • Page 334 and 335:

    318 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6II.

  • Page 336 and 337:

    320 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Comm

  • Page 338 and 339:

    322 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Admi

  • Page 340 and 341:

    324 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6fina

  • Page 342 and 343:

    326 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 63. E

  • Page 344 and 345:

    328 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6asks

  • Page 346 and 347:

    330 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 348 and 349:

    332 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6subm

  • Page 350 and 351:

    334 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ligh

  • Page 352 and 353:

    336 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 354 and 355:

    338 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6a) B

  • Page 356 and 357:

    340 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6resp

  • Page 358 and 359:

    342 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Spec

  • Page 360:

    344 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6(d)

  • Page 364:

    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng
Universal-ESCR-PG-no-8-Publications-Practitioners-guide-2014-eng
Universal-PG-13-Judicial-Accountability-Publications-Reports-Practitioners-Guide-2016-ENG
Universal-Fight-against-impunity-PG-no7-comp-Publications-Practitioners-guide-series-2015-ENG
Universal-PG-11-Asylum-Claims-SOGI-Publications-Practitioners-Guide-Series-2016-ENG
Universal-PG-13-Judicial-Accountability-Publications-Reports-Practitioners-Guide-2016-ENG
presentation-2014-eng-screen
18784-PG-Prospectus---ENG-final-web
PG Urban Conservation - University of Leicester
Universal-Enforced-Disappearance-and-Extrajudicial-Execution-PGNo9-Publications-Practitioners-guide-series-2015-ENG
2014-12-04-Camput-Prelim-Program-Eng
PG Engineering Brochure - The University of Nottingham, Malaysia ...
Security Forces send-off|pg. 6 - 102nd Intelligence Wing ...
Breakfast for Keiki >> pg 6 Pregnancy and Flu Shot ... - AlohaCare
What makes this unit 'special' pg 6-7 - Hurlburt Field
The Cool Kid with the Cool Dog pg. 6 - Can Do Canines
ENG 0XX - University of Maine at Augusta
HIPS-2014-Annual-Report-ENG.
idc-digital-universe-2014
European-facts-and-the-Global-status-report-on-violence-prevention-2014-Eng
Pgs 25-26 - Salisbury University
pg 59-80 - Western Michigan University Athletics Department
Post-partum management of gestational diabetes Pg.6
March 6-8, 2014 - Pacific Dental Conference