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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

238 | PRACTITIONERS

238 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the right to the highest attainable standard of health; the right to socialsecurity; and the right to education. The right to work, workplace rights,and other related rights are addressed separately in Chapter 6.1. The right to an adequate standard of livingArticle 11 ICESCR provides that “States Parties to the present Covenantrecognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living forhimself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing,and to the continuous improvement of living conditions”. 948 Other rights,whose respect and realisation are necessary to the attainment of anadequate standard of living—for example the right to water and sanitation—arealso protected by Article 11. 949The right to a continuous improvement of living conditions is an obligationof progressive realisation. The other rights contained inArticle 11—including the right to food, water and housing—include obligationsof immediate effect and core elements that must be realisedimmediately. 950a) The right to water and sanitationThe right to water “entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable,physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domesticuse”. 951 The right to water is intrinsically linked with the right to life andhuman dignity, as well as with the right to the highest attainable standardof health, the right to housing and the right to food. 952 Water mustbe available, and be of sufficient quality to be safe and healthy. 953States have an immediate obligation to ensure access to the minimumessential amount of safe water, on a non-discriminatory basis, 954 es-948 Article 11.1 ICESCR. See, Article 14.2(h), ICEDAW; Article 27 CRC; Article 70, ICRMW; Article28, CRPD. See also, CRC, General Comment No. 6, op. cit., fn. 138, para. 44; ConcludingObservations on Japan, CERD, op. cit., fn. 935, para. 177; Concluding Observations onGambia, CRC, op. cit., fn. 935, para. 450.949 See, CESCR, General Comment No. 15, op. cit., fn. 148, para. 3.950 CESCR, General Comment No. 3, op. cit., fn. 147, para. 10. See also, CESCR, General commentNo. 14, op. cit., fn. 37, para. 43; and General Comment No. 19, The right to socialsecurity, CESCR, UN Doc. E/C.12/GC/19, 4 February 2008, para. 59.951 CESCR, General Comment No. 15, op. cit., fn. 148, para. 2. The right to water is also recognizedexplicitly in some human rights treaties: Article 14.2(h) CEDAW; Article 24.2(c) CRC;Article 28.2(a) CRPD; Articles 20, 26, 29, 46 of the Convention (III) relative to the Treatmentof Prisoners of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949 (III Geneva Convention); Articles 85,89, 127, IV Geneva Convention; Articles 54 and 55 API to the Geneva Conventions; andArticles 5 and 14 APII of the Geneva Conventions. A more detailed analysis is contained inSee, CESCR, General Comment No. 15, op. cit., fn. 148, to which we remand.952 See, ibid., paras. 1 and 3.953 See, ibid., para.12.954 See, ibid., para. 13.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 239pecially for disadvantaged or marginalised groups. 955 States should giveparticular attention to those categories of people who have traditionallyencountered difficulties in the enjoyment of such right, including refugees,asylum-seekers and migrants. 956 All persons or groups who havebeen denied their right to water must have access to an effective judicialor other appropriate remedy which can provide reparation, includingrestitution, compensation, satisfaction and guarantees of non-repetition,in case of violation. 957The right to sanitation is fundamental to human dignity and privacy,and is linked to the right to safe water supplies and resources, as wellas to rights to health and housing. 958 It requires States to progressivelyextend safe sanitation services, taking into account the particular needsof women and children. 959b) The right to foodArticle 11.1 provides for the right to adequate food. Article 11.2 ICESCRrecognises “the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger”,960 which is a right of immediate effect. In accordance with thisright, a State is “obliged to ensure for everyone under its jurisdictionaccess to the minimum essential food which is sufficient, nutritionallyadequate and safe, to ensure their freedom from hunger.” 961The CESCR has recognised that the right to food is linked to the inherentdignity of the human person and indispensible for the fulfilment of otherhuman rights. 962 The African Commission too stressed that the right tofood “is inseparably linked to the dignity of human beings and is thereforeessential for the enjoyment and fulfilment of such other rights ashealth, education, work and political participation.” 963The right to adequate food is fully realised when “every man, womanand child, alone or in community with others, has physical and economicaccess at all times to adequate food or means for its procurement”. 964While some aspects of this right are likely to be realised only progressively,the obligation under Article 11.2 to ensure freedom from hungeris of immediate effect, being a core obligation of the right to food. The955 See, ibid., para. 37.956 See, ibid., para. 16.957 See, ibid., para. 55.958 See, ibid., para. 29.959 See, ibid., para. 29. See also, Article 14.2 CEDAW; Article 24.2 CRC.960 Article 11.2 ICESCR. See also Article 24.2(c) CRC; Article 28.1 CRPD.961 CESCR, General Comment No. 12, op. cit., fn. 148, para. 14.962 Ibid., para. 4.963 SERAC and CESR v. Nigeria, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 29, para. 65.964 CESCR, General comment No. 12, op. cit., fn. 148, para. 6.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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