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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

240 | PRACTITIONERS

240 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6same applies to the obligation to respect, and in most instances protect,the existing access to adequate food or means for its procurement. Theright to adequate food implies the availability of “food in quantity andquality sufficient to satisfy the dietary needs of individuals, free fromadverse substances, and acceptable within a given culture”, and theaccessibility “of such food in ways that are sustainable and that do notinterfere with the enjoyment of other human rights”. 965The CESCR has emphasised that unjustified discrimination in access tofood, or in means of its procurement, will violate Article 11, 966 and thatStates must ensure access to an effective judicial or other appropriateremedy which can provide reparation, including restitution, compensation,satisfaction and guarantees of non-repetition, for violations of theright to food. 967c) Right to adequate housingThe right to adequate housing 968 is likely to be of particular relevance tomigrants. It is protected as part of the right to an adequate standard ofliving in Article 11 ICESCR, and is also expressly protected in a numberof global and regional instruments. It is distinct from civil and politicalrights of respect for the home, 969 which are related to the right to respectfor private life, although there is some overlap in protection withthis right. The right to adequate housing, as protected under ESC rightstreaties, establishes a right to adequate shelter and accommodationand entails duties to respect, protect and fulfil. The right to housingincludes rights to: security of tenure, which requires legal protectionagainst forced eviction, harassment and other threats; the right to haveadequate housing with facilities essential for health, security, comfortand nutrition; financial costs associated with housing at such a levelthat the attainment and satisfaction of other basic needs are not threatenedor compromised; housing that is habitable, safe, protects from theelements and from disease and provides adequate space; housing thatis accessible to those entitled to it; and that is located so as to allow965 Ibid., para. 8.966 Ibid., para. 18.967 See, ibid., para. 32.968 See, Article 11.1 ICESCR; Article 25.1 UDHR; Article 5(e)(iii) ICERD; Article 14.2 CEDAW;Article 27.3 CRC; Article 28.1 and 28.2(d) CRPD; Article XI ADRDM; Articles 16 and 31ESC(r); Article 16, Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Womenin Africa; Article 10 of theDeclaration on Social Progress and Development, GA resolution 2542(XXIV), 11 December1969; section III (8) of the Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements, 1976 (Reportof Habitat: United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (United Nations publication,Sales No. E.76.IV.7 and corrigendum); chap. I); Article 8(1), Declaration on the Right to Development,General Assembly resolution No. 41/128, UN Doc. A/RES/41/128, 4 December1986; and Workers’ Housing Recommendation (R115), ILO, adopted on 28 June 1961.969 See, Article 17 ICCPR, Article 8 ECHR, Article IX ADRDM, Article 11 ACHR, Article 10 ACRWC,Article 12 UDHR.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 241access to employment, health-care services, schools, child-care centresand other social facilities. 970The CESCR foresees that aspects of the right to housing should be judiciallyenforceable, whether against the State or private third parties.Legal actions might be aimed at preventing planned evictions or demolitionsthrough the issuance of court-ordered injunctions; seeking compensationfollowing an illegal eviction; challenges against illegal actioncarried out or supported by landlords (whether public or private) inrelation to rent levels, dwelling maintenance, and racial or other formsof discrimination; lawsuits against any form of discrimination in theallocation and availability of access to housing; and complaints againstlandlords concerning unhealthy or inadequate housing conditions. Insome legal systems it would also be appropriate to explore the possibilityof facilitating collective or class action suits in situations involvingsignificantly increased levels of homelessness. 971It should be noted that particularly poor conditions of housing mightamount to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment under Article 16 CATand equivalent provisions in other treaties. 972i) Forced evictionsThe prohibition of forced evictions is one aspect of the right to housing thatis of immediate effect and breaches should be able to be challenged incourt, whether the eviction is by State or third party actors. 973 The CESCRdefines “forced eviction” as “the permanent or temporary removal againsttheir will of individuals, families and/or communities from the homesand/or land which they occupy, without the provision of, and access to,appropriate forms of legal or other protection.” 974 Eviction affects not onlyseveral ESC rights, but may also, depending on the circumstances, affect970 General Comment No. 4, The right to adequate housing, CESCR, UN Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.9(Vol.I), 13 December 1991, para. 8. The European Committee on Social Rights takes a similarapproach in its jurisprudence. See, European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC) v. Greece, ECSR,Complaint No. 15/2003, Merits, 8 December 2004, para. 24. The Committee found a violationof the right to adequate housing, even though this is a right of progressive realisation, becausethe State could not satisfy even its minimum standards with regards to Roma (see §§ 42–43).See also, ERRC v. Italy, ECSR, Complaint No. 27/2004, Merits, 7 December 2005, para. 35;ERRC v. Bulgaria, ECSR, Complaint No. 31/2005, Merits, 18 October 2006, para. 34; EuropeanFederation of National Organisations Working with the Homeless (FEANTSA) v. France, ECSR,Complaint No. 39/2002, Merits, 5 December 2007, para. 74; ERRC v. France, ECSR, ComplaintNo. 51/2008, Merits, 19 October 2009, para. 46. On the protection of right to adequatehousing by Articles 16 and 31, see, ERRC v. Bulgaria, ECSR, paras. 15–18. However, the rightto adequate housing under the European Social Charter, at least on its face, covers only foreignersof other Contracting States lawfully resident in the territory of the State.971 CESCR, General Comment No. 4, op. cit., fn. 970, para. 17.972 Concluding Observations on Slovenia, CAT, op. cit., fn. 353, para. 211.973 General Comment No. 7, The right to adequate housing: forced evictions, CESCR, UN Doc.HRI/GEN/1/Rev.9 (Vol.I), 20 May 1997, para. 8.974 Ibid., para. 3.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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