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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

242 | PRACTITIONERS

242 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6civil and political rights, such as “the right to life, the right to security ofthe person, the right to non-interference with privacy, family and homeand the right to the peaceful enjoyment of possessions.” 975 Consequently,if the domestic legal system does not allow for legal actions directly protectingagainst forced evictions under the right to housing, the mattermay sometimes be brought to court under other rights protected by internationalhuman rights law, such as the right to respect for the home. 976In order not to be arbitrary, under the CESCR, evictions must be carriedout in compliance with the relevant provisions of international humanrights law and in accordance with general principles of reasonablenessand proportionality. They must be precisely provided for by law, in primarylegislation, must be in accordance with a legitimate aim, and proportionateto the aim pursued. 977 Evictions must take place pursuantto a precise, fair and open procedure, with the opportunity for genuineconsultation with those affected, information made available within areasonable time 978 and reasonable notice for all affected persons priorto the scheduled date of eviction. The evicted person must be providedwith legal remedies and, where possible, legal aid to persons who are inneed of it to seek redress from the courts. 979In particular “[e]victions should not result in individuals being renderedhomeless or vulnerable to the violation of other human rights. Wherethose affected are unable to provide for themselves, the State Partymust take all appropriate measures, to the maximum of its availableresources, to ensure that adequate alternative housing, resettlement oraccess to productive land, as the case may be, is available.” 980The ECSR has held that “illegal occupation of a site or dwelling may justifythe eviction of the illegal occupants. However the criteria of illegaloccupation must not be unduly wide, the eviction should take place inaccordance with the applicable rules of procedure, and these shouldbe sufficiently protective of the rights of the persons concerned.” 981975 Ibid., para. 4.976 Article 17 ICCPR, Article 8 ECHR, Article IX ADRDM, Article 11 ACHR, Article 10 ACRWC,Article 12 UDHR.977 See, CESCR, General Comment No. 7, op. cit., fn. 973, para. 14, which refers also to CCPR,General Comment No. 16, op. cit., fn. 791.978 See, Miloon Kothari, “Basic Principles and Guidelines on development-based evictions and displacement”,in Annual Report of the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a componentof the right to an adequate standard of living, UN Doc. A/HRC/4/18, 5 February 2007, Annex 1.979 CESCR, General Comment No. 7, op. cit., fn. 973, para. 15.980 Ibid., para. 16. See also, Concluding Observations on Norway, CESCR, UN Doc.E/C.12/1/Add.109, 13 May 2005, para. 38.981 ERRC v. Greece, ECSR, op. cit., fn. 970, para. 51; ERRC v. Bulgaria, ECSR, op. cit., fn. 970,para. 51; International Movement ATD Fourth World (ATD) v. France, ESCR, ComplaintNo. 33/2006, Merits, 5 December 2007, paras. 77–78; FEANTSA v. France, ECSR, op. cit.,fn. 970, paras. 85–86; ERRC v. France, ECSR, op. cit., fn. 970, para. 67.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 243Evictions must be justified and carried out in conditions that respect thedignity of the persons concerned. Alternative accommodation must bemade available. The law must establish procedures and timing of theeviction, provide legal remedies and offer legal aid to those who need itto seek redress to courts. Finally, the system must provide for compensation.Legal protection for persons threatened by eviction must include,in particular, an obligation to consult the affected parties in order to findalternative solutions to eviction and the obligation to fix a reasonablenotice period before eviction. 982It should also be noted that forced evictions, either by the State or byprivate parties, may amount to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment,for example when this involves destruction of the home, or is based ondiscriminatory grounds. 983ii) Discrimination in housing and equal application to migrantsThe enjoyment of the right to housing, including the prohibition of arbitraryforced evictions, must not be subject to any form of discrimination,whether caused by actions of the State or of third parties. 984 This principleapplies to non-citizens, regardless of their status. 985 Furthermore,the ILO Convention No. 97 and the European Social Charter (revised)both provide for the obligation of host countries to apply a treatment noless favourable than that which it applied to its own nationals, withoutdiscrimination in respect of nationality, race, religion or sex, in respectof accommodation. 986982 See, ERRC v. Italy, ECSR, op. cit., fn. 970, para. 41; ERRC v. Bulgaria, ECSR, op. cit.,fn. 970, para. 52; ATD v. France, ECSR, op. cit., fn. 981, paras. 77–78; FEANTSA v. France,ECSR, op. cit., fn. 970, paras. 85–86; ERRC v. France, ECSR, op. cit., fn. 970, para. 68.983 Yöyler v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 937, paras. 74–76; Selçuk and Asker v. Turkey, ECtHR,op. cit., fn. 937, paras. 77–80; Bilgin v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 937, paras. 100–104;Moldovan and Others (2) v. Romania, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 937, paras. 111, 113–114. See,Sudan Human Rights Organisations and Others v. Sudan, ACommHPR, Communications Nos.279/03 and 296/05, 45 th Ordinary Session, May 2009, para. 159.984 CESCR, General Comment No. 4, op. cit., fn. 970, para. 6; CESCR, General Comment No. 7,op. cit., fn. 973, para. 10. See also, Concluding Observations on Belgium, CESCR, Report ofthe Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to the UN Economic and Social Council,UN Doc. E/1995/22 (1995), p. 34, para. 157; Concluding Observations on Denmark, CESCR,op. cit., fn. 188, paras. 21 and 34; Concluding Observations on Cyprus, CESCR, op. cit., fn. 784,para. 21; Concluding Observations on Luxembourg, CERD, UN Doc. CERD/C/LUX/CO/13,18 April 2005, para. 17; Concluding Observations on France, CERD, UN Doc. CERD/C/FRA/CO/16,18 April 2005, para. 12.985 CERD, General Recommendation No. 30, op. cit., fn. 18, para. 32. See, Article 5(e)(iii) ICERD.See also, Concluding Observations on Luxembourg, CERD, op. cit., fn. 984, para. 17; ConcludingObservations on France, CERD, op. cit., fn. 984, para. 12. The principle has also beenupheld by the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers in Recommendation R(88)14 of theCommittee of Ministers to member states on migrants’ housing, adopted by the Committeeof Ministers on 22 September 1988 at the 419 th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies.986 Article 6.1, Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) (C97), ILO, adopted on 1 July1949; and Article 19.4.3 ESC(r). Article 19 ESC(r), contrary to almost all provisions of that treaty,is applicable to all migrant workers and foreigners, regardless of their status or provenience.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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