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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

244 | PRACTITIONERS

244 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6As for the regime applicable under international law for refugees andasylum-seekers, the Geneva Refugee Convention provides that “States,in so far as the matter is regulated by laws or regulations or is subjectto the control of public authorities, shall accord to refugees lawfullystaying in their territory treatment as favourable as possible and, in anyevent, not less favourable than that accorded to aliens generally in thesame circumstances”. 987The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Womenhas recommended with regard to women migrant workers that Statesshould, under Articles 2(c), (f), and 3 of the CEDAW, “provide temporaryshelter for women migrant workers who wish to leave abusiveemployers, husbands or other relatives and provide facilities for safeaccommodation during trial”. 988The European Court of Human Rights has ruled that, when a Statedecides to provide housing benefits, it must do so in a way that iscompliant with Article 14 ECHR 989 which prohibits unjustified discriminationin the enjoyment of other ECHR rights “on any ground such assex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, nationalor social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth orother status.” However, the Court has also ruled that, while immigrationstatus constitutes one of the prohibited grounds of discrimination underArticle 14 ECHR (see, Section I, 4), it is justifiable to discriminate inthe prioritization for the assignment of housing benefits by disfavouringmigrants who are undocumented or that are present in the nationalterritory on the condition that they had no recourse to public funds, asthis specific discrimination“pursued a legitimate aim, namely allocatinga scarce resource fairly between different categories of claimants”. 990The European Committee on Social Rights has ruled that the right to shelter(Article 31.2 ESC(r)) is to be granted to all migrants, regardless of their status.991 It requires the State to provide shelter as long as the undocumentedmigrants are under its jurisdiction and unable to provide housing for themselves.The living conditions of the shelter “should be such as to enableliving in keeping with human dignity”. 992 The Committee found that, “since987 Article 21, Geneva Refugee Convention.988 CEDAW, General Recommendation No. 26, op. cit., fn. 8, para. 26(c)(iv).989 Bah v. the United Kingdom, op. cit., fn. 899, para. 40.990 Ibid., para. 50.991 See, DCI v. the Netherlands, ECSR, op. cit., fn. 906, paras. 46–48. The Committee readsthe obligation to provide shelter for undocumented unaccompanied children also under Article17.1(c) ESC(r): the obligation to “provide protection and special aid from the State forchildren and young persons temporarily or definitively deprived of their family’s support”.On the same line, CEDAW, General Recommendation No. 26, op. cit., fn. 8, para. 26(i).992 DCI v. the Netherlands, ECSR, op. cit., fn. 906, para. 62. For full reasoning on content ofright to shelter see paras. 61–65.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 245in the case of unlawfully present persons no alternative to accommodationmay be required by States, eviction from shelter should be banned as itwould place the persons concerned, particularly children, in a situation ofextreme helplessness which is contrary to the respect of their human dignity.”993 The Committee has also further determined that “failure to accommodate[undocumented] minors shows, in particular, that the Governmenthas not taken the necessary and appropriate measures to guarantee theminors in question the care and assistance they need and to protect themfrom negligence, violence or exploitation, thereby posing a serious threatto the enjoyment of their most basic rights, such as the rights to life, topsychological and physical integrity and to respect for human dignity,” 994 inbreach of their right to to appropriate social, legal and economic protectionunder Article 17.1 ESC(r). Furthermore, failure to appropriately accommodateundocumented children or young persons, whether accompanied ornot by their family, breaches the State’s obligation to take “the necessarymeasures to guarantee these minors the special protection against physicaland moral hazards required by Article 7, §10, thereby causing a seriousthreat to their enjoyment of the most basic rights, such as the right to life,to psychological and physical integrity and to respect for human dignity.” 995The European Committee of Social Rights also affirmed that lack of accommodationfor children and young persons leads to violations of theirright to access health services and of the obligation of States to preventepidemic and endemic diseases under Article 11 ESC(r). The Committeehas specifically ruled that “the lasting incapacity of the reception facilitiesand the fact that, consequently, a number of the minors in question(particularly those accompanied by their families) have been consistentlyforced into life on the streets exposes these minors to increased threats totheir health and their physical integrity, which are the result in particularof a lack of housing or foster homes. In this connection, the Committeeconsiders that providing foreign minors with housing and foster homes isa minimum prerequisite for attempting to remove the causes of ill healthamong these minors (including epidemic, endemic or other diseases) andthat the State therefore has felt to meet its obligations as far as theadoption of this minimum prerequisite is concerned.” 996iii) Protection of the right to housing through civil and political rightsThe ECHR affords protection from destruction of homes 997 and forcedevictions 998 under the right to respect for the home and family and993 Ibid., para. 62.994 DCI v. Belgium, ECSR, op. cit., fn. 904, para. 82.995 Ibid., para. 97.996 Ibid., para. 117.997 Akdivar and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 937.998 Mentes v. Turkey, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 23186/94, Judgment of 28 November 1997.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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