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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

248 | PRACTITIONERS

248 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6• To ensure access to basic shelter, housing and sanitation, and anadequate supply of safe and potable water;• To provide essential drugs;• To ensure equitable distribution of all health facilities, goods andservices;• To adopt and implement a national public health strategy and planof action; the process by which the strategy and plan of action aredevised, as well as their content, should give particular attentionto all vulnerable or marginalised groups;• To ensure reproductive, maternal (pre-natal as well as post-natal)and child health care;• To provide immunisation against major infectious diseases;• To take measures to prevent, treat and control epidemic and endemicdiseases;• To provide education and access to information on significanthealth problems. 1013a) Non-discrimination in healthcare and equal application tomigrantsAs with all ESC rights, States must respect the principle of non-discriminationand the prohibition of retrogressive measures that affect theright to health. 1014 The duty of non-discrimination in regard to the rightto health includes discrimination towards migrants and asylum-seekers,regardless of their status. 1015 This is confirmed by the CERD and CESCR:1013 Taken verbatim from ibid., paras. 43–44.1014 Ibid., para. 30.1015 See, ibid., para. 34. See also, Concluding Observations on Serbia and Montenegro, CESCR,UN Doc. E/C.12/1/Add.108, 13 May 2005, para. 60; Concluding Observations on Italy, CESCR,Report of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to the UN Economic andSocial Council, UN Doc. E/2001/22 (2001), p. 34, paras. 123 and 138; Concluding Observationson Belgium, CESCR, UN Doc. E/C.12/BEL/CO/3, 3 December 2007, paras. 21 and35; Concluding Observations on France, CESCR, UN Doc. E/C.12/FRA/CO/3, 16 May 2008,paras. 26 and 46. See also, Concluding Observations on Kyrgyzstan, CRC, Report of theCommittee on the Rights of the Child on its 24 th Session, UN Doc. CRC/C/97 (2000), p. 51,para. 311; Concluding Observations on Slovenia, CRC, UN Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.230, 26 February2004, paras. 54–55; Concluding Observations on Oman, CRC, UN Doc. CRC/C/OMN/CO/2,29 September 2006, para. 46; Concluding Observations on the Netherlands, CRC, UN Doc.CRC/C/NLD/CO/3, 30 January 2009, paras. 51–52; Concluding Observations on Sweden, CRC,2009, op. cit., fn. 209, paras. 60–61. See also, Concluding Observations on Bhutan, CEDAW,op. cit., fn. 489, paras. 29–30; Concluding Observations on Ecuador, CMW, op. cit., fn. 502,paras. 39–40; CEDAW, General Recommendation No. 26, op. cit., fn. 8, para. 26(i) and (l);CEDAW, General Recommendation No. 24, op. cit., fn. 29. Indeed, CEDAW also recommendedthat “special attention should be given to the health needs and rights of women belongingto vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, such as migrant women, refugee and internally displacedwomen [...]”, CEDAW, General Recommendation No. 24, op. cit., fn. 29, para. 6.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 249CERD has affirmed that States have the obligation to “[e]nsure [. . .] theright of non-citizens to an adequate standard of physical and mentalhealth by, inter alia, refraining from denying or limiting their access topreventive, curative and palliative health services”. 1016 The CESCR hasdetermined that “[a]ll persons, irrespective of their nationality, residencyor immigration status, are entitled to primary and emergency medicalcare.” 1017 Nevertheless, this is a minimum requirement. When a healthcaresystem normally provides treatment beyond primary and emergencymedical care, the exclusion of asylum-seekers, or documentedor undocumented migrant workers and members of their families fromthe system would violate Article 12 ICESCR read together with Article 2,Article 5 ICERD, or (in cases involving children) Article 24 CRC. 1018The CRC has stressed that, “[w]hen implementing the right to enjoy thehighest attainable standard of health and facilities for the treatment ofillness and rehabilitation of health under article 24 of the Convention,States are obligated to ensure that unaccompanied and separated childrenhave the same access to health care as children who are [. . .]nationals.” 1019 It also pointed out that, under Article 39 CRC, Stateshave the obligation to “provide rehabilitation services to children whohave been victims of any form of abuse, neglect, exploitation, torture,cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or armed conflicts. In orderto facilitate such recovery and reintegration, culturally appropriate andgender-sensitive mental health care should be developed and qualifiedpsychosocial counselling provided.” 1020 The Executive Committee ofUNHCR has stressed that the minimum core of protection for refugeeor asylum-seeker children is higher than for adults. On the right tohealth, they have an immediate right to the highest attainable standardof health, 1021 and States are under the obligation to provide “medical orother special care, including rehabilitation assistance, to assist the socialreintegration of refugee children and adolescents, especially those thatare unaccompanied or orphaned.” 1022 The Human Rights Committee1016 CERD, General Recommendation No. 30, op. cit., fn. 18, para. 36 (based on Article 5(e)(iv)ICERD), and CESCR, General Comment No. 14, op. cit., fn. 37, para. 34, which specificallyincludes asylum-seekers and illegal migrants.1017 CESCR, General comment No. 19, op. cit., fn. 950, para. 37.1018 See, Concluding Observations on Italy, CESCR, op. cit., fn. 1015, paras. 123 and 138; ConcludingObservations on Belgium, CESCR, op. cit., fn. 1015, paras. 21 and 35; ConcludingObservations on France, CESCR, op. cit., fn. 1015, paras. 26 and 46. See also, ConcludingObservations on Slovenia, CRC, op. cit., fn. 1015, paras. 54–55; Concluding Observationson the Netherlands, CRC, op. cit., fn. 1015, paras. 51–52; Concluding Observations on Sweden,CRC, 2009, op. cit., fn. 209, paras. 60–61; Concluding Observations on Norway, CERD,UN Doc. CERD/C/NOR/CO/18, 19 October 2006, para. 21.1019 CRC, General Comment No. 6, op. cit., fn. 138, para. 46.1020 Ibid., para. 48.1021 Conclusion No. 84, UNHCR, op. cit., fn. 214, para. (a)(iii).1022 Ibid. para. (b)(vi).

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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