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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

250 | PRACTITIONERS

250 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6has suggested that certain grave practices against the health of people,particularly women, may amount to a violation of the right to life. 1023The ILO Convention No. 97 provides for duties for State Parties relatedto the right to health of migrants. They pertain to medical examinations,care and hygiene before the migration journey, during the journey andon arrival. 1024As highlighted in the previous section on the right to housing, theEuropean Committee of Social Rights stressed particularly the connectionof the right to housing with the right to health, finding that lack ofadequate accommodation for children and young persons may lead toviolations of their right to access health services and may breach theobligation of States to prevent epidemic and endemic diseases underArticle 11 ESC(r). Indeed, the Committee considered “that providingforeign minors with housing and foster homes is a minimum prerequisitefor attempting to remove the causes of ill health among theseminors (including epidemic, endemic or other diseases) and that theState therefore has felt to meet its obligations as far as the adoption ofthis minimum prerequisite is concerned.” 1025b) Protection of the right to health through civil and political rightsThe European Court of Human Rights, although it has not expressly recogniseda right to health, has found that the right to respect for privateand family life “is relevant to complaints about public funding to facilitatethe mobility and quality of life of disabled applicants [and mightbe] applicable to [. . .] complaints about insufficient funding of [health]treatment.” 1026According to the Court, the right to life (Article 2 ECHR) might also enterinto play as “[i]t cannot be excluded that the acts and omissions of theauthorities in the field of health care policy may in certain circumstancesengage their responsibility under Article 2 [and] an issue may ariseunder Article 2 where it is shown that the authorities of a ContractingState put an individual’s life at risk through the denial of health carewhich they have undertaken to make available to the population generally”.1027 The Court also found that the right to life (Article 2 ECHR)1023 See, CCPR, General Comment No. 28, op. cit., fn. 22, para. 10.1024 Article 5, Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) (C97), ILO.1025 DCI v. Belgium, ECSR, op. cit., fn. 904, para. 117.1026 Pentiacova and Others v. Moldova, ECtHR, Application No. 14462/03, Admissibility Decision,4 January 2005; Sentges v. the Netherlands, ECtHR, Application No. 27677/02, AdmissibilityDecision, 8 July 2003; Powell v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, Application No. 45305/99, AdmissibilityDecision, 4 May 2000.1027 Ibid. See also, Powell v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 1026; Cyprus v. Turkey, ECtHR,op. cit., fn. 410, para. 219; Nitecki v. Poland, ECtHR, Application No. 65653/01, AdmissibilityDecision, 21 March 2002.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 251“require[s] States to make regulations compelling hospitals, whetherpublic or private, to adopt appropriate measures for the protection oftheir patients’ lives.” 1028 The Court has, however, stressed that “where a[. . .] State has made adequate provision for securing high professionalstandards among health professionals and the protection of the lives ofpatients” then errors of judgment on the part of health professionals ornegligent co-ordination among health professionals in the treatment ofa particular patient will not violate the State’s positive obligations underArticle 2 ECHR. 1029 In practice, when the authorities were or oughtto have been aware of the need for appropriate treatment in order toavert a real and immediate risk to life, and failed to take timely measuresto provide such treatment, then Article 2 ECHR may be violated.1030 The Court has also ruled that, “just as it is not open to a Stateauthority to cite lack of funds or resources as an excuse for not honouringa judgment debt [. . .], the same principle applies a fortiori whenthere is a need to secure the practical and effective protection of theright protected by Article 2, a right fundamental in the scheme of theConvention”. 1031The European Court of Human Rights has also recognised that Stateshave a positive duty under the right to a family life (Article 8 ECHR)and the right to life (Article 2) to ensure that the right to a healthy environmentis respected and guaranteed both by public authorities andprivate entities and individuals. 1032The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has held that “States areresponsible for regulating and supervising the rendering of health services,so that the rights to life and humane treatment may be effectivelyprotected. All of this requires setting up a legal system which effectivelyrespects and guarantees the exercise of such rights, and supervisingpermanently and effectively the rendering of services on which life andhumane treatment depend.” 1033 The Court therefore affirmed an obligationof States to grant a minimum standard of the right to health and tosupervise its implementation both by public and private entities in lightof the right to life and humane treatment (Articles 4 and 5 ACHR). 10341028 Calvelli and Ciglio v. Italy, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 32967/96, Judgment of 17 January2002, para. 49. See also, Erikson v. Italy, ECtHR, Application No. 37900/97, AdmissibilityDecision, 26 October 1999; Nitecki v. Poland, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 1027.1029 Panaitescu v. Romania, ECtHR, Application No. 30909/06, Judgment of 10 April 2012, para. 28.1030 Ibid., para. 36.1031 Ibid., para. 35.1032 See, López Ostra v. Spain, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 938, paras. 51–58 (Article 8 ECHR); Oneryildizv. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 939, paras. 71, 90, 94–96 (Article 2 ECHR); Guerra and Othersv. Italy, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 938, paras. 56–60.1033 Albán-Cornejo et al. v. Ecuador, IACtHR, Series C No. 171, Judgment of 22 November 2007,para. 121.1034 See, ibid., paras. 117–122.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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