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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

254 | PRACTITIONERS

254 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6allowing them the same possibility to apply for permanent residence,which would entitle them to the same benefits. 1045The ILO Convention No. 97 and the Geneva Refugee Convention both affirmthe obligation of a host country to apply to refugees, asylum seekers,and migrant workers, treatment no less favourable than that appliedto its own nationals, without discrimination in respect of nationality,race, religion or sex, in respect of “social security (that is to say, legalprovision in respect of employment injury, maternity, sickness, invalidity,old age, death, unemployment and family responsibilities, and any othercontingency which, according to national laws or regulations, is coveredby a social security scheme)”. 1046 The ILO Convention on Equalityof Treatment (Social Security) (No. 118) also affirms this principle. 1047Concerning refugees and asylum-seekers, the Geneva Refugee Conventionmandates States to “accord to refugees lawfully staying in their territorythe same treatment with respect to public relief and assistance as isaccorded to their nationals”. 1048 On the enjoyment of social benefits, theConvention provides that “States shall accord to refugees lawfully stayingin their territory the same treatment as is accorded to nationals in respectof [. . .] [s]ocial security (legal provisions in respect of employment injury,occupational diseases, maternity, sickness, disability, old age, death,unemployment, family responsibilities and any other contingency which,according to national laws or regulations, is covered by a social securityscheme)”. 1049 The Convention nevertheless provides for restrictionsto this right. The Convention accepts that “[t]here may be appropriatearrangements for the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course1045 D.R. v. Australia, CERD, Communication No. 42/2008, Views of 15 September 2009,para. 7.1 (equally on the right to education, para. 7.2.); and D.F. v. Australia, CERD, CommunicationNo. 39/2006, Views of 3 March 2008, paras. 7.1–7.2.1046 Article 6.1, Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) (C97), ILO; and Article 24, GenevaRefugee Convention. These Articles also provides for specific limitations to this right. TheCommittee of Experts has found that such limitations might not imply or lead to an automaticexclusion of any given category of migrant workers from the benefits. See, Representation(article 24)—2003—China, Hong Kong SAR—C097—Report of the Committee set up to examinethe representation alleging non-observance by China—Hong Kong SAR of the Migrationfor Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97) made under article 24 of the ILOConstitution by the Trade Union Congress of the Philippines (TUCP), Document No. (ilolex):162003CHN097 (TUCP v. China, ILO), para. 41.1047 See, Equality of Treatment (Social Security) Convention (C118), ILO, adopted on 28 June1962. It is not a highly ratified Convention, but some most developed countries are part ofit. See for interpretation of the Committee of Experts, Representation (article 24)—2003—Netherlands—C118—Report of the Committee set up to examine the representation madeby the Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions (TURK-IS) under article 24 of the Constitutionof the ILO, alleging non-observance by the Netherlands of the Equality of Treatment (SocialSecurity) Convention, 1962 (No. 118), Document No. (ilolex): 162003NLD118, Geneva,9 November 2006 (TURK-IS v. Netherlands, ILO).1048 Article 23, Geneva Refugee Convention.1049 Article 24(1), ibid.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 255of acquisition”, 1050 and that “[n]ational laws or regulations of the countryof residence may prescribe special arrangements concerning benefits orportions of benefits which are payable wholly out of public funds, andconcerning allowances paid to persons who do not fulfil the contributionconditions prescribed for the award of a normal pension.” 1051Otherwise, the regime granted by the Convention is quite favourable tothe refugee or asylum-seeker, provided that he or she is legally presenton the territory. The Convention recognises that “[t]he right to compensationfor the death of a refugee resulting from employment injuryor from occupational disease shall not be affected by the fact that theresidence of the beneficiary is outside the territory of the ContractingState.” 1052 In addition, it mandates States to “extend to refugees thebenefits of agreements concluded between them, or which may be concludedbetween them in the future, concerning the maintenance of acquiredrights and rights in the process of acquisition in regard to socialsecurity, subject only to the conditions which apply to nationals of theStates signatory to the agreements in question.” 1053b) Protection of rights to social security through civil andpolitical rightsThe right to social security is not only an ESC right but has also beenapplied under the umbrella of certain civil and political rights, and principallyunder the right to property.The European Court of Human Rights has held that the right to benefits,such as emergency assistance, is a pecuniary right protected bythe right to property (Article 1 of Protocol 1 ECHR), “without it beingnecessary to rely solely on the link between entitlement to emergencyassistance and the obligation to pay 'taxes or other contributions'.” 1054In the case of Gaygusuz v. Austria, the Court found that the non-recognitionby the Austrian authorities of the applicant’s right to emergencyassistance based on the sole fact of his foreign nationality wasunreasonable and in violation of the prohibition of non-discrimination(Article 14 ECHR). 1055 In Koua Poirrez v. France, the Court establishedthat the same prohibition of discrimination on the sole basis of nationalityapplied to non-contributory social schemes. 1056 It must, however, be1050 Article 24(1)(b)(i), ibid.1051 Article 24(1)(b)(ii), ibid.1052 Article 24(2), ibid.1053 Article 24(3), ibid.1054 Gaygusuz v. Austria, ECtHR, Application No. 17371/90, Judgment of 16 September 1996,para. 41.1055 See, ibid., paras. 41, 46–521056 See, Poirrez v. France, ECtHR, Application No. 40892/98, Judgment of 30 September 2003,paras. 37–50.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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