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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

256 | PRACTITIONERS

256 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6stressed that in both cases the migrant workers concerned were legallyresident. It is not clear if the European Court would apply the sameregime to undocumented migrants.The European Court has found that the right to respect for family life(Article 8 ECHR) covers maternity benefits 1057 and child benefits. 1058In the case Okpisz v. Germany, the Court held that granting child benefitsto non-nationals who were in possession of a stable permit andnot to others constituted arbitrary discrimination under Article 14 ECHRread together with Article 8. 1059The Court also recognised as protected by the right to property the rightto be a beneficiary of an old age insurance system, which cannot, however,be interpreted as entitling the person to a pension of a particularamount. 1060 The protection of the right to property is triggered once anindividual has paid contributions to the pension scheme, and does notenvisage an abstract right to have a pension. 1061 However, the Courthas recognised that “the suspension of payment of a pension where[. . .] the [beneficiary] is neither a [national] citizen nor living withinthe [State]” 1062 does not constitute arbitrary deprivation of property asit is considered to fall within the legitimate restrictions of Article 1.2 ofProtocol 1.The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has ruled that it has competenceto adjudicate the progressive realisation by a State Party of theright of social security, under Article 29 of the ACHR. 1063 It has furthermorerecognised that a State will violate the human rights of a migrantworker, whether documented or not, “when it denies the right to apension to a migrant worker who has made the necessary contributionsand fulfilled all the conditions that were legally required of workers, orwhen a worker resorts to the corresponding judicial body to claim hisrights and this body does not provide him with due judicial protectionor guarantees.” 1064 Both the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and1057 Weller v. Hungary, ECtHR, Application No. 44399/05, Judgment of 31 March 2009.1058 Okpisz v. Germany, ECtHR, Application No. 59140/00, Judgment of 25 October 2005.1059 Ibid., para. 34.1060 Müller v. Austria, ECommHR, Plenary, Application No. 5849/72, Admissibility Decision, 16 December1974; X v. the Netherlands, ECommHR, Plenary, Application No. 4130/69, AdmissibilityDecision, 20 July 1971; National Federation of Self-Employed v. United Kingdom, ECommHR, Plenary,Application No. 7995/77, Admissibility Decision, 11 July 1978, para. 2; T. v. Sweden, ECommHR,Plenary, Application No. 10671/83, Admissibility Decision, 4 March 1985; Stigson v. Sweden,ECommHR, Application No. 12264/86, Admissibility Decision, 13 July 1988; Szrabjet and Clark v.United Kingdom, ECommHR, Applications Nos. 27004/95 and 27011/95, 23 October 1997.1061 See, fn. 1060.1062 X. v. Federal Republic of Germany, ECommHR, Plenary, Application No. 6572/74, 4 March1976.1063 “Five Pensioners” v. Peru, IACtHR, Series C No. 98, Judgment of 28 February 2003, para. 147.1064 Advisory Opinion on Undocumented Migrants, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 33, para. 154.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 257the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights have found that “theproprietary effect of a pension regime to which persons have madecontributions or met the respective legal requirements should be understoodas falling within the scope of the right to property enshrinedin Article 21 of the American Convention.” 1065 Similar to the approach ofthe European Court of Human Rights, the Inter-American Commissionallows for restrictions on such rights when they are provided for by law,respond to a legitimate aim to raise a social interest or to preservethe general well-being in a democratic society, and are proportional. 10664. EducationThe right to education 1067 is widely protected as an economic, socialand cultural right, as well as by civil and political rights instruments. 1068It is well established that States have an obligation to provide free andcompulsory primary education. 1069 This is an obligation of immediateeffect, as are the obligations to “have respect for the liberty of parentsand, when applicable, legal guardians to choose for their childrenschools, other than those established by the public authorities, whichconform to such minimum educational standards as may be laid downor approved by the State and to ensure the religious and moral educationof their children in conformity with their own convictions”, 1070 and“the liberty of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educationalinstitutions”. 1071While free secondary education and access to higher education are progressiveobligations, States must respect the principle of non-discriminationand the prohibition of retrogressive measures. 1072 Indeed, asthe Committee on the Rights of the Child pointed out “[d]iscriminationon the basis of any of the grounds listed in article 2 of the Convention,whether it is overt or hidden, offends the human dignity of the child and1065 National Association of Ex-Employees v. Peru, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 892, para. 103; “FivePensioners” v. Peru, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 1063, paras. 102–104.1066 See, ibid., para. 112.1067 Article 13 ICESCR; Article 5(e)(v) ICERD; Article 10 ICEDAW; Articles 28 and 29 CRC; Articles12.4, 30, 43.1(a), 45.1(a) and 45.4, ICRMW; Article 24 CRPD; Article XII ADRDM; Article 13,Protocol of San Salvador; Article 17 ACHPR; Article 2 P1 ECHR; Article 17.2 ESC(r); Article 12,Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Women in Africa; Article 11 ACRWC.1068 General Comment No. 11, Plans of action for primary education, CESCR, UN Doc. E/C.12/1999/4,10 May 1999, para. 21069 Article 13.2(a) ICESCR. See, CESCR, General Comment No. 13, op. cit., fn. 785, para. 6(b).See also, Article XII ADRDM; Article 13.3(a), Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11.3(a)ACRWC; Article 17.2 ESC(r) (free primary and secondary education).1070 Article 13.3 ICESCR; Article 13.4, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 2 P1 ECHR.1071 Article 13.4 ICESCR; Article 13.5, Protocol of San Salvador.1072 See, Article 13.2(b) and (c) ICESCR; CESCR, General Comment No. 13, op. cit., fn. 785,para. 43. See also, Article 13.3(b) and (c), Protocol of San Salvador.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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