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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

260 | PRACTITIONERS

260 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6education, including vocational training at all levels. Access to qualityeducation should also be ensured for children with special needs, inparticular children with disabilities.” 1082The Inter-American Court has specified that, “according to the child’sright to special protection embodied in Article 19 of the AmericanConvention, interpreted in light of the CRC and the Additional Protocolto the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic,Social and Cultural Rights, in relation to the obligation to ensure progressivedevelopment contained in Article 26 of the American Convention,the State must provide free primary education to all children in an appropriateenvironment and in the conditions necessary to ensure theirfull intellectual development.” 1083The European Court considers the right to education (Article 2 ofProtocol 1 ECHR) as one of the “most fundamental values of the democraticsocieties making up the Council of Europe.” 1084 The right to educationmust not be denied to anyone and must not be restrictivelyinterpreted. 1085 The Court has found that excluding children from educationdue to the lack of registration as regular migrants of the parentsconstituted a violation of the right to education. 1086 This right of accessto education applies to primary and secondary education, in particularas the Court affirmed that “[t]here is no doubt that the right to educationguarantees access to elementary education which is of primordialimportance for a child’s development”. 1087 However, the Court left opena certain margin to apply differential measures on access to “tertiary”(college and university) education. 1088In the case Ponomaryovi v. Bulgaria, the European Court stated that,although Article 2 of Protocol No. 1 “cannot be interpreted as imposinga duty on the Contracting States to set up or subsidise particular ed-1082 CRC, General Comment No. 6, op. cit., fn. 138, para. 41. See also, paras. 42–43 for moredetail in measures to be taken.1083 Yean and Bosico Case, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 281, para. 185.1084 Timishev v. Russia, ECtHR, Applications Nos. 55762/00 and 55974/00, Judgment of13 December 2005, para. 64.1085 See, ibid., para. 64.1086 See, ibid., paras. 65–67, presenting this case the applicants where Chechen citizens, thereforeformally citizens of the Russian Federation, but they nevertheless required migrationregistration in other parts of the country to access education.1087 Ibid., para. 64. See, X. v. United Kingdom, ECommHR, Plenary, Application No. 5962/72,Admissibility Decision, 13 march 1975; and, 15 Foreign Students v. United Kingdom,ECommHR, Plenary, Application No. 7671/76, Admissibility Decision, 19 May 1977.1088 See, Karus v. Italy, ECommHR, Application No. 29043/95, Admissibility Decision, 20 May1998, where the European Commission found that establishing higher fees for foreign studentsto access Italian university did not violate the right to education, as the discriminationwas reasonably justified by the aim of the Italian Government to have the positive effects oftertiary education to stay within the Italian economy. See also, 15 Foreign Students v. UK,ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 1087.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 261ucational establishments, any State doing so will be under an obligationto afford effective access to them [. . .]. Put differently, access toeducational institutions existing at a given time is an inherent part ofthe right set out in the first sentence of Article 2 of Protocol No. 1”. 1089The Court ruled that State authorities had breached the prohibition ondiscrimination in relation to the right to education (in this case, secondaryeducation) under Article 2, Protocol 1 read together with Article 14ECHR, because the applicants had to pay school fees only because oftheir nationality and immigration status. The Court found that, althoughit could be legitimate for the State to curtail the use by short‐term andundocumented migrants of “resource-hungry” public services, by differentiatingbetween categories of migrants in allowing access to suchservices, 1090 “unlike some other public services [. . .], education is aright that enjoys direct protection under the Convention. It is expresslyenshrined in Article 2 of Protocol No. 1 to the Convention [. . .]. It is alsoa very particular type of public service, which not only directly benefitsthose using it but also serves broader societal functions.” 1091 Given theimportance of this right in the Convention system, the European Courtheld that a stricter scrutiny applies in the assessment of the proportionalityof the discrimination based on “nationality” or “immigration status”than when the enjoyment of other social benefits are at stake (see, fora comparison with the rights to housing, section II.1.c.ii).1089 Ponomaryovi v. Bulgaria, ECtHR, Application No. 5335/05, Judgment of 21 June 2011, para. 49.1090 Ibid., para. 54.1091 Ibid., para. 55.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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